Chapitre 2A
Les Cours
la biologie
la chimie
les langues étrangères (f.)
l’économie (f.)
l’histoire (f.)
la physique
la géographie
les mathématiques (f.) les maths
la psychologie
l’informatique (f.)
l’anglais (m.)
l’architecture (f.)
l’art (m.)
le droit
la philosophie
les sciences (f.)
les sciences politiques (f.)
le stylisme
l’éducation physique
la gestion
les lettres (f)
foreign languages
mathematics (math)
computer (science)
political science
fashion design
physical education
business administration
Les Cours
Le cours de français
Le cours d’espagnol
Le cours d’allemand
J’aime la biologie.
I like biology
J’aime surtout les maths.
I especially like math.
J’aime bien la chimie.
I really like chemistry.
J’aime mieux l’art.
I prefer art.
Je n’aime pas tellement l’histoire. You must use “le” “la”
“l’” or “les” before a
I don’t really like history.
noun to tell what
Je déteste la physique.
someone likes, loves,
I hate physics.
prefers, hates etc.
J’adore l’informatique.
I love computer.
Les cours
une bourse
une cantine
un cours
un devoir
un diplôme
les études (supérieures) f.
le gymnase
une note
un restaurant universitaire (un resto U)
être reçu (e) à un examen
scholarship, grant
class, course
diploma, degree
high education, studies
university cafeteria
to pass an exam
Les Adjectifs
La géographie est facile.
Geography is easy.
L’économie est difficile.
Economics is hard.
Les mathématiques sont inutiles.
Mathematics are useless.
Les langues étrangères sont utiles.
Foreign languages are useful.
Culture: Au lycée
What is high school like in France? At the end of middle school (le collège), French
students begin three years of high-school study at the lycée (high school).
Beginning in seconde (10th grade), students pass into première (11th grade) and end
with la terminale (12th grade). The lycée experience is quite different from
American high school. For example, the days are much longer: often from 8am5pm. On Wednesdays, classes typically end at noon. Students in some high schools
may also have class on Saturday morning. French schools do not offer organized
sports, like American schools do, but students who want to play an organized sport
can join l’Association sportive scolaire. Every public high school must offer the
option to its students. All such extra-curricular activities takes place after school
hours or on Wednesday afternoons.
Culture: Au lycée
Grades are based on a 20-point
scale, with 10 being the average
grade. As students advance in their
studies, it becomes harder for them
to achieve a grade of 16/20 or even
14/20. A student can receive a
below-average score in one or
more courses and still advance to
the next level as long as their
overall grade average is at least
Culture: Au lycée
Another important difference is that French students must begin a specialization
while in high school, at the end of the classe de seconde. (10th grade). That choice
is likely to influence the rest of their studies and, later their job choice. While they
can change their mind after the first trimester of première (11th grade), by then
students are already set on a course towards the baccalauréat or bac, the terminal
exam that concludes their lycée studies.
Immersion française au Canada
Au Canada, l’anglais et le français sont les langues officielles, mais les provinces ne
sont pas nécessairement bilingues –le Nouveau-Brunswick est la seule province
officiellement bilingue. Seulement 17,4% des Canadiens parlent le français et
l’anglais. Pourtant, il existe un programme d’immersion française qui encourage le
bilinguisme; certains élèves d’école primaire ou sécondaire choisissent de suivre
leurs cours en français. Pendant trois années ou plus, les élèves ont tous leurs cours
uniquement en français. Au Nouveau-Brunswick, 32% des élèves s’inscrits. Au
Québec, province majoritairement francophone, mais avec une communauté
Anglophone importante, 22% des élèves sont inscrits dans le programme
d’immersion française.
Les verbes en –ER:
- the basic form of a verb is called the infinitive.
- Many French infinitives end in –er.
- These verbs follow a predictable pattern to make them easy to
remember in the present tense.
The present tense can be translated in different ways in English.
Ex. Ils étudient la physique.
the verb “être” isn’t
They study physics.
included in the verb
conjugation. The word “are”
They are studying physics. is included in the verb “to
They do study physics.
aimer mieux
habiter à/en
penser (que/qu’)
to love
to like
to prefer
to arrive
to look for
to start, to begin
to draw
to hate
to give
to study
to live in
to eat
to forget
to share
to think (that…)
to look (at)
to meet
to meet up with, to find again
to work
to travel
Verbes: ER
Unlike the English to look for, the French chercher requires no
preposition before the noun that follows it.
Ex#1: Nous cherchons les stylos.
We are looking for the pens.
Notice: there is no French word for the word “for”. It’s included in the
French definition of the verb chercher.
Ex#2: Vous cherchez la montre?
Are you looking for the watch?
Les verbes en –ER:
• The present tense forms of –er verbs consist of two parts:
The stem never changes. It is the infinitive minus the –er.
Ex. #1: Jouer
jouWe took off the –er and now our stem is jou
Les verbes en –ER:
Now that we have a stem we have to add an ending.
Endings change with each subject!
je = e
(je becomes j’ before a vowel sound)
tu = es
il/elle = e
nous = ons
vous = ez
ils/elles = ent
(The “t” is silent)
Les verbes en –ER:
Let’s try an example:
Ex. #1: aimer
1. stem = aim
2. add an ending for je
3. J’aime
Ex. #2: parler
1. stem = parl
2. add an ending for nous
3. Nous parlons
Les verbes en –ER:
Let’s try conjugating the entire verb parler
je parle
tu parles
il/elle parle
nous parlons
vous parlez
ils/elles parlent
Le présent des verbes en –ER:
forme négative
The negative form of the verb follows the pattern:
Subject + ne + verb + pas
Ex. Il ne travaille pas.
He doesn’t work.
He is not working
Before a vowel sound: Subject + n’+ verb + pas.
Ex. Il n’oublie pas.
He does not forget.
He is not forgetting.
With the subject “nous” with any verb that ends in the letters
GER we must keep the letter “e”.
Ex. Nous mangeons une pizza. We eat a pizza.
Ex. Nous voyageons à Paris.
We travel to Paris.
Ex. Nous partageons avec des amis.
We share with some friends.
REMEMBER: This rule only applies to the subject “nous”
With the subject “nous” with any verb that ends in the letters
CER we must use the ç
Ex. Nous commençons
Ex. Nous commençons les devoirs.
We are starting homework.
REMEMBER: This rule only applies to the subject “nous”
Verbe + infinitive
To express what they like and don’t like to do, the
French use the following expressions:
Ex. #1: Nous aimons voyager.
We like to travel.
Subject + present tense of aimer + infinitive
Ex. #2: Nous n’aimons pas voyager.
We do not like to travel.
Subject + ne + present tense of aimer + pas + infinitive
Verbe + infinitive
The infinitive is also used after the following
Je déteste…I hate
J’aime… I like
J’adore…I love
J’aime mieux…I prefer
J’aime bien… I really like
Je n’aime pas… I don’t like
Verbe + infinitive
Ex. J’aime manger une pizza.
I like to eat a pizza.
Ex. Ils n’aiment pas dessiner.
They do not like to draw.
They don’t like drawing.
Ex. J’adore travailler.
I love to work
Ex. Nous détestons étudier
We hate to study
Notice: The first verb is conjugated and the second
verb is NOT!
Verbe + infinitive au Négatif
Ex. Il aime voyager. He likes to travel.
Négatif: Il n’aime pas voyager.
Ex. Vous adorez manger.
Négatif: Vous n’adorez pas manger.
*** Sujet + ne + verbe (conjugated) + pas + verbe (not
Forming Questions
There are several ways to ask questions in French. The
simplest way is to use the same wording as for a statement but
with rising intonation when speaking or setting a question
mark as the end when writing. This method is considered
Ex. Tu aimes le français?
Tag Question
A second way to ask a question, is to place a tag question at the
end of the statement. This can be formal or informal.
Ex. On commence à deux heures, d’accord?
We’re starting at two o’clock, ok?
Ex #2: Nous mangeons à midi, n’est-ce pas?
We eat at noon, don’t we?
Les questions à réponse affirmative ou négative
The sentences on left are statements. The sentences on the right are questions.
These questions are called YES/NO questions because they can be answered by
yes or no. Est-ce que questions are somewhat formal.
Note: The French questions begin with est-ce que…
Yes/no question:
Stéphanie mange les frites.
Est-ce que Stéphanie mange les frites?
Does Stéphanie eat fries?
Tu aimes la musique.
Est-ce que tu aimes la musique?
Do you like music?
Les questions à réponse affirmative ou négative
Yes/No questions can be formed according to the pattern:
Est-ce que + statement?
Ex. Est-ce que Paul téléphone à des amis?
Est-ce qu’ + (Vowel Sound)
Ex. Est-ce qu’il téléphone à des amis?
Les Expressions: YES/NO QUESTIONS
Use the following expressions to respond to a statement that requires a
Oui Yes
Bien sûr Yes of course
Pas du tout
Not at all
Moi non plus Me neither
Mais Non
But of course not
Toi non plus
You neither
Est-ce que questions
Ex. #1: Statement: il travaille.
Est-ce qu’il travaille?
Réponse: Oui, il travaille.
Ex. #2: Statement: Tu chantes.
Est-ce que tu chantes?
Réponse: Oui, je chante.
Ex. #3: Statement: elles voyagent avec des amis.
Est-ce qu’elles voyagent avec des amis?
Réponse: Oui, elles voyagent avec des amis.
Les Questions et les sujets
When you answer a question consider the following:
Question: TU Answer: JE
Question: VOUS
Answer: NOUS
All the other subjects will remain the same from the question to the
Qustion: Est-ce que tu étudies?
Answer: Oui, bien sûr j’étudie.
Qustion: Est-ce que vous dessinez?
Answer: Oui, nous dessinons.
Qustion: Est-ce qu’elle travaille?
Answer: Non, elle ne travaille pas.
Use “si” instead of “oui” to contradict a negative sentence.
Il ne cherche pas le sac à dos.
Isn’t he looking for the backpack?
Si. Il cherche aussi les crayons.
Yes. He’s looking for the pencils too.
Les Questions avec Inversion
How have we learned to ask a question?
We have learned to use: “est-ce que”
In conversational French, the French usually use est-ce que but when
the subject is a subject pronoun (il, elle, tu, etc) the French usually
use inversion. It is used in formal situations.
Inversion is when you reverse the subject and the verb:
Ex. Vous parlez anglais.
You speak English.
Est-ce que vous parlez anglais? Do you speak English?
Parlez-vous anglais?
Do you speak English?
Notice: both questions ask the SAME thing!
Les Questions avec Inversion
Inverted questions are formed as follows:
YES/NO questions: Verb + Subject Pronoun+ …?
Ex. Voyagez-vous à Paris?
Do you travel to Paris?
Information questions: Question word + verb + subject+ …?
Pourquoi retrouves-tu Sophie ici?
Why are you meeting Sophie here?
Parce qu’elle habite près d’ici.
Because she lives near here.
Parce que= because
L’interrogation avec Inversion
In the inversion: If a verb in the singular ends on a vowel, the letter “t” is
inserted after the verb so that the liaison can occur.
Ex. #1: Où travaille-t-il?
Notice: If the subject is a
Where does he work?
noun rather than a
Ex. #2: Où mange-t-elle?
pronoun, invert the
pronoun and the verb, and
Where does she eat?
place the noun before
Ex. #3: Le professeur parle-t-il français?
Or… Parle-t-il français?
Does the teacher speak French?
Ex.#4: Nina, arrive-t-elle demain? Or… Arrive-t-elle demain?
Does Nina arrive tomorrow?
Inversion: La Négation (ne…pas)
To make a sentence negative in French, place ne (n’ before a vowel
sound) before the conjugated verb and pas after it.
Ex. Je ne dessine pas bien.
I don’t draw well.
Ex #2: Ne parlez pas!
Don’t talk in class!
Take a look at the inversion in the negative:
Abdel n’aime-t-il pas étudier? Doesn’t Abel like to study?
Ne détestez-vous pas travailler? Don’t you hate to work?