Les négatifs et l’interrogation
A. L’élision/La liaison
• When a verb begins with a vowel or
a silent h, “je” is shortened to j’ .
This is known as elision which means
that the vowel has been eliminated.
For plural forms, you will make a
liaison or a link when the next word
begins with a vowel.
Ex. • J’aime la classe de science. (elision)
• J’habite à Paris. (elision)
• Nous aimons la musique. (liaison)
B. Les négatifs
• You will use the “sandwich” formula to make
negatives in French.
Sandwich your verb between your bread… “ne”
and “pas.”
The sandwich formula…
Subject + ne + verb + pas + rest of sentence
Before a
Ex. –
• Je ne parle pas anglais.
• Il n’habite pas à Paris.
C. L’interrogation
• There are four (4) different
ways to form a question in
French. These ways are…
1. L’intonation
• Raise your voice at the end of a sentence. Put
a question mark at the end.
(*This is the easiest way to ask a question.)
Ex. – Paul regarde la télé?
Ex. – Tu parles français?
2. L’inversion
• Invert the subject and verb and place a
hyphen between them.
(*More common in written French! Less
frequently used in spoken French!)
Tu écoutes la radio.
Écoutes-tu la radio?
Vous mangez une pizza.
Mangez-vous la pizza?
Ils voyagent à Paris.
Voyagent-ils à Paris?
NOTE: Only subject pronouns are used
as subjects with this form!
• For inversion with il or elle forms, a -t- is
inserted between the verb and the subject
pronoun. This aids in pronunciation. No
other form will take this addition!
Ex. – Dîne-t-il au restaurant?
Ex. – Joue-t-elle au football?
3. Est-ce que
• Add this expression before any statement.
• Before a vowel sound…it will shorten to
Est-ce qu’
Ex. – Est-ce que Paul danse bien?
Ex. – Est-ce qu’elle chante beaucoup?
4. n’est-ce pas
• Add this expression after any statement. Like
a tag question in English.
• NOTE: Use a comma to separate!
• You are asking for confirmation.
Ex. – Il travaille beaucoup, n’est-ce pas?
Ex. – Anne parle anglais, n’est-ce pas?