Telechargé par Epiphane Diogoye Mbengue

The problem of youth employment is in fact a real time bomb

In the developing countries, unemployment and employment inflict degrading
living conditions on young people. From year to year this cyclical
phenomenon persists more and severely jeopardizes all the policies
initiated for the employment of young people. Young people, often whipped
by pessimism and despair, find no alternative but to resign from their own
lot or to try perilous experiences such as clandestine emigration in
drastic and dangerous conditions. An analysis of this situation, of a
frankly alarming extent, could lead us to question the relevance and
coherence of the actions of guidance, guidance, training and support of
young people.
Too many young people have few and too many young people do not have them
at all. They often live in an inner social misery which from time to time
manifests itself. They feel, these young people that they are no more or
more part that they are on the margins of a society that operates at
different speeds, sometimes solicits them, and sometimes forgets them. This
feeling of failure is worse than failure itself because it reaches the
minds of our young people and makes it very difficult to integrate them. We
will not cease to repeat this: it is the inadequacy between training and
jobs, the non-qualification and unequal access to basic services of the
State (sports, information and communication technologies ICT), transport
and travel, and decent housing that generate this evil.
The problem of employment remains thus insoluble and daily undermines this
Senegalese youth, blocks it’s flourishing and seriously compromises its
future. Most Senegalese families already knew precariousness since 1984
with the implementation of a policy of structural adjustment, this
precariousness resulted in poverty almost universal. The fear of poverty
for oneself is now 71% among the population, while for their children, this
fear becomes even greater among the Senegalese, at 85%.
The problem of youth employment is in fact a real time bomb, which it is
absolutely important today to defuse by all means. Contrary to what some
think, the fight against youth unemployment is not a brake on the search
for a lasting solution to the current crisis: On the contrary, it remains
in fact an effective solution against idleness and delinquency Because
putting young people at work is above all to empower them, to stabilize
them and to avoid giving in to the calls for violence.
Youth unemployment, endemic (source ANDS, 1990). Indeed, 60% of the
population is less than 20 years old. Young people of working age (15-34)
account for more than half of the labor force (3,500,000). The unemployment
rate for young people is 12.9% nationally and 18.59 in Dakar and its
suburbs. This unemployment rate is endemic due to an unskilled labor force
(formal and inadequate training, inadequate training in employment and a
weak modern private sector (less than 10% of the total Of the jobs, 90% of
the jobs are informal or rural) and ambient conservatism that does not
facilitate the real exploration of the non-market sector and the social and
solidarity economy. (18.59% in Dakar), and chronic underemployment in rural
areas, the main cause of migratory movements. An alarming qualification.
Indeed, 57% of jobseekers do not have a diploma, which is a serious
handicap. According to the Subregional Office for West Africa of the United
Nations Economic Commission for Africa "57% of jobseekers do not have a
diploma and only 1.6% A university degree ". There are more male job
seekers than women According to this source, there are more men (64%) than
women (36%) who are looking for a job. And among these applicants, those
aged 15 to 35 represent 56%. It is also reported that the majority of
jobseekers (53%) did not study, while 74% of those who attended school did
not go beyond the primary level and 87% Secondary education. This situation
of unemployment is a brake on the socio-economic development of our
The persistence of poverty, especially in rural and peri-urban areas, the
extreme youth of the population, the exodus to cities and emigration for
economic reasons, are now making the employment problem particularly acute
Employment of young people. Despite the creation of employment as a major
theme of economic and social policies in the 1990s, the unemployment
situation in Senegal remains difficult and most of the difficulties
identified remain still current.
In Senegal, the unemployment rate stands at 10.2% (ESPS 2011). It mainly
affects young people and graduates of higher education in search of their
first job. The youth unemployment rate (15-35 years) would be 13% by 2017.
The achievement of the objective of creating 300,000 jobs, set for the
period 2013 to 2017, raises this rate to 6% at the end of the SNDES period
Thus, faced with this situation, Dr Touré advocates the development,
strengthening and decentralization of training, demonstration and
incubation at the development poles. The goal, says Dr. Moctar Touré, is to
increase by 20% the number of graduates per year. "Young job-seekers are
faced with enormous difficulties in accessing information on training and
development opportunities and on financing opportunities for
entrepreneurs," said Dr Moctar, Sees as a solution, the promotion of
"steering of the educational system by command"
Various initiatives have often been implemented to combat youth
unemployment. For example, in order to settle unemployment among young
people in France, the government has used the reduction of working time: if
an individual works shorter than before, then he "frees" hours of work The
result of a reduction of almost 10% in the national labor market).
Such an initiative, if implemented in SENEGAL, could make it possible to
insert another employee into the system, without jeopardizing wages.
Reduction of working time, by reducing the hourly volume per worker, thus
reduces the overall supply of labor. It should be noted, however, that in
SENEGAL particular attention should be paid to working hours which must be
appropriately reduced and with the aim of creating a job opportunity for
other unemployed persons while guaranteeing productivity In the different
sectors of activity.
The other solution would be to improve the employability of young people by
taking pride in excellence by directly hiring the best students of the
various outgoing promotions of universities and grandes écoles from the
private as well as the public. The aim is to reinforce their skills and
abilities through a short, adapted training period, through the acquisition
of new technical and professional skills in administration and management.
In reality, it is not enough today to obtain a diploma to find a job. The
guarantee of any success for young people in the labor market now requires
a continuous development of their skills to adapt to the demands of the
market. Education remains essential, but it is above all through the most
relevant training tools, namely apprenticeship and traineeship, that the
State can really create opportunities and give the majority of its the job
The above analysis shows that young people are more exposed to unemployment
and underemployment than adults, younger people (15 to 24 years) more than
the youngest (25 to 35 years old), young women More than young men.
Educational attainment, while not explaining unemployment, allows those
with a sufficiently high level to have a higher-paying job, thus better
integration into the labor market, particularly in the modern sector, Which
allows them not to experience the situation of underemployment. This
sector, the target of the labor force, has a low absorptive capacity in
Côte d'Ivoire, which is one of the major problems of employment.
Many young people (15-24 years of age) have an early entry into the
workforce, which does not favor a better integration into the labor market
since they enter it often enough because they drop out of school too early
. Young women often do not go to school or drop out early, more than young
men. As a result, they live in the most difficult situations; This
phenomenon is observed both in terms of unemployment and underemployment.