VOIX PASSIVE / VOIX PASSIVE

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Un procédé réthorique
Observe the two paragraphs.
a) New protests in the Liverpool mills
Several spinning machines were broken in Liverpool’s main cotton mill.
The machines are worth several thousand pounds and were
perfect examples of the efficiency of water-powered machinery.
The factory Owner, Mr. Dail, expressed his indignation at his
worker’s « irresponsible violence ». The machines should soon be
replaced but they are costly and the whole mill is now in jeopardy.

b) Rebel workers
In Liverpool cotton mill, where the workers are paid a mere £120,
several trade unionists have set up a series of protests to claim
better wages and shorter working hours. The workers were held
responsible for several acts of violence, including frame-breaking.
A dozen of them have been arrested and are now being examined
by the police. The protesters are said to be radical union-leaders
and will soon be prosecuted.
SUR QUELS ELEMENTS DE LA SITUATION L’ACCENT EST-IL MIS?

La structure invariante est : BE + PP
Il existe à tous les temps, on conjugue l’auxiliaire :

On peut l’utiliser avec les modaux

Si on mentionne l’agent, il est introduit par BY

Several rioters were arrested / have been arrested / are to be arrested /
will be arrested…
The leader could be / may be / could have been Allan Doherty
The prisoners are now being cross examined by our best police officers.
On n’indique par l’agent si :
il est trop général (people, men, someone ...)
il n’est pas essentiel ou non identifié
si on veut le cacher
 Si le verbe a deux compléments, on opte généralement pour un sujet
animé:
The mill owner gave his workers a £10 reward.
The workers were given …
A £10 reward was given to the workers.
Pour METTRE EN VALEUR L’AGENT:
A police officer has arrested one of the rioters.
One of the rioters has been arrested.
 TRADUCTION DE ON
 ON DIT, ON RAPPORTE, ON PENSE QUE…
On croit que les émeutiers sont de jeunes rebels.
The rioters are believed to be young rebels.
On dit qu’il est fou.
He is said to be mad.
 PASSIF SEMANTIQUES: READ / SELL / WASH

This book reads well.

ADJECTIF OU VOIX PASSIVE ?
The bridge was destroyed when I arrived.
The bridge was destroyed. I don’t know who destroyed it.
ne se construisent qu’au passif :
to be born / to be left
 GET
peut remplacer BE pour exprimer le passage
d’un état à un autre:

He got drunk. The glass got broken ...
VERBES A PARTICULES : ne pas oublier la particule.
Someone slept in my bed.
My bed was slept in.
Someone broke into the house.
he house was broken into
 DIFFÉRENCE DE SENS

Few books are read by many people.
Many people read few books.
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