Fall Semester 2000 Prof. Herrick Chapman G46.1910, G57.1910 and B50.2319 Tuesdays: 3:40-6:10 Office hours: Wednesdays 10-12 e-mail: [email protected] THE FRENCH ECONOMY: PAST AND PRESENT This course explores the historical development and contemporary dynamics of the French economy. We begin with a survey of recent trends and then ask what kinds of historical inquiries might help explain them. We then explore industrialization in nineteenth-century France, the economics of empire, the rise of large-scale modern enterprises, and the impact of the two world wars and Great Depression in the twentieth century. For the rest of the term we concentrate on the French economy since 1945. After exploring how the French economy has evolved in relationship to the European Community, we focus on several aspects of economic policy, including planning and industrial policy, monetary policy and finance, employment policy and labor relations, regional decline and development, agriculture, the welfare state, and issues of trade and globalization in a rapidly changing international economy. There are no prerequisites for the course, though students should be familiar with the basic concepts and terminology commonly taught in introductory economics courses. Likewise, some familiarity with the political history of twentieth-century France and of postwar Europe is essential. Be sure to ask the professor about additional background reading if at any point in the course you feel it would help you. Because this is a discussion course, its quality depends on everyone preparing the material and participating in class. Three papers are required: two 5 to 7-page papers on the central themes involved in the reading for two different weeks of the course, due in class when the reading will be discussed, and a 15-page term paper on a topic worked out in discussion with the instructor and due on Friday, December 15. Grading is as follows: class participation (20%), short papers (20% each), and the final term paper (40%). Students will be asked to make brief presentations during the weeks when their short papers are due. The following books are available in paperback at the NYU campus bookstore: Peter Hall, Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986). Andrew Moravcsik, The Choice for Europe: Social Purpose and State Power for Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998). Vivien A. Schmidt, From State to Market? The Transformation of French Business and Government (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Class Schedule Sept. 12 B Introduction Sept. 19 B Current Trends in Historical Perspective Stanley Hoffmann, “Look Back in Anger,” New York Review of Books, July 17, 1997. “France Takes Off,” Newsweek (International), March 20, 1999. Observatoire Français des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE), L’économie française 2000 (Paris: La Découverte, 2000), articles by Françoise Milewski, Valérie Chauvin, Hervé Péléraux, and Gael Dupont (chapters 1, 2, 3 and 7). Sept. 26 B Industrialization and Empire Required: Tom Kemp, Economic Forces in French History (London: Dennis Dobson, 1971), chapters 8 and 9. Rondo Cameron and Charles Freedman, "French Economic Growth: A Radical Reconsideration," Social Science History (Winter 1983). Jacques Marseille, “The Phases of French Colonial Imperialism,” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 13, 3 (1985). Recommended: Richard Roehl, "French Industrialization: A Long Run Reconsideration," Explorations in Economic History (1976). Tom Kemp, "Economic and Social Policy in France," in The Cambridge Economic History of Europe Vol. 8: The Industrial Economies: The Development of Economic and Social Policies, edited by Peter Mathias and Sidney Pollard (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 691-751. Maurice Levy-Leboyer and Michel Lescure, "France," in Richard Sylla and Gianni Toniolo, eds., Patterns of European Industrialization: The Nineteenth Century (London and New York: Routledge, 1991), pp. 153-174. Charles Kindleberger, Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1851-1950 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1964). Patrick O'Brien and Calgar Keyder, Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1780-1914: Two Paths to the Twentieth Century (London: Allen and Unwin, 1978). Maurice Levy-Leboyer and François Bourguignon, The French Economy in the Nineteenth Century: An Essay in Econometric Analysis (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Calgar Keyder, "State and Industry in France, 1756-1914," American Economic Review (May 1985). Douglas A. Irwin, "Free Trade and Protection in Ninteenth-Century Britain and France Revisited: A Comment on Nye," Journal of Economic History 53, no. 1 (March 1993): 146158. John Vincent Nye, "The Myth of Free-Trade Britain and Fortress France: Tariffs and Trade in the Nineteenth Century," Journal of Economic History (March 1991): 23-46. Jean-Pierre Dormois, L'Economie francaise face a la concurrence britannique a la veille de 1914 (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1997). Oct. 3 B The Rise of Dirigisme in the Twentieth Century Required: Richard Kuisel, Capitalism and the State in Modern France: Renovation and Economic Management in the Twentieth Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982), selected chapters. Recommended: Cecil O. Smith, "The Longest Run: Public Engineers and Planning in France," American Historical Review 95, 3 (June 1990). John F. Godfrey, Capitalism at War: Industrial Policy and Bureaucracy in France, 1914-1918 (New York: Berg, 1987). Pierre Rosanvallon, "The Development of Keynesianism in France," in The Political Power of Economic Ideas: Keynesianism Across Nations, edited by Peter A. Hall (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), 171-193. "Table Ronde: Le Capitalisme et l'Etat," Bulletin de l'Institut d'histoire du temps présent 18 (December 1984). Jean Bouvier and François Bloch-Lainé, La France restaurée, 1944-1954 (Paris: Fayard, 1986). Alan Milward, The New Order and the French Economy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970). Michel Margairaz, L'Etat, les finances et l'économie: histoire d'une conversion, 1932-1952 (Paris: Comité pour l'histoire économique et financière de la France, 1991). Gérard Bossuat, La France, l'aide américaine et la construction européenne, 1944-1954 (Paris: Comité pour l'histoire économique et financière de la France, 1992). Hubert Bonin, Histoire economique de la IVe république (Paris: Economica, 1987). Michel Margairaz, ed., Pierre Mendès France et l'économie (Paris: Editions Odile Jacob, 1989). Oct. 10 B Structure and Strategy in Twentieth-Century Enterprise Required: David Landes, "French Business and the Businessman: A Social and Cultural Analysis,@ in Edward Mead Earle, ed., Modern France: Problems of the Third and Fourth Republics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), pp. 334-353. Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, "The Large Corporation in France," in Managerial Hierarchies: Comparative Perspectives on the Rise of the Modern Industrial Enterprise, edited by Alfred D. Chandler, Jr. and Herman Daems (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1980). Bruce Kogut, AEvolution of the Large Firm France in Comparative Perspective,@ Entreprises et histoire 19 (1998): 113-151. Recommended: Youssef Cassis, "Divergence and Convergence in British and French Business in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries," and "Big Business in Britain and France, 1890-1990," in Youssel Cassis, Francois Crouzet and Terry Gourvish, eds., Management and Businesss in Britain and France: The Age of the Corporate Economy (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), pp. 1-28 and 214-226. Pierre-Cyrile Hautcoeur, “L’Autofinancement: théorie, questions de méthode et tentative de cadrage macro-économique pour la France (1914-1990),” Entreprises et histoire 22 (October 1999): 55-77. Patrick Fridenson, Histoire des usines Renault (Paris: Seuil, 1972). Maurice Lévy-Leboyer, ed., Le Patronat de la seconde industrialisation (Paris: Editions Ouvrières, 1979). "Les Racines de l'entreprise," special issue of Revue française de gestion 70 (SeptemberOctober 1988). Marc Meuleau, "From Inheritors to Managers: The Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales and Business Firms," in Cassis, Crouzet, and Gouvish, pp. 128-146. Henri Morsel, Histoire de l'electricite en France 3 volumes (Paris: Fayard, 1996). J.-P. Daviet, Une Multinationale a la francaise: Saint-Gobain 1665-1989 (Paris, 1989). P. Cayez, Rhone-Poulenc, 1895-1975 (Paris, 1988). J. F. Leger, Une grande entreprise dans la chimie francaise: Kuhlmann 1825-1982 (Paris, 1988). Oct. 17 B State Economic Management and Planning after 1945 Required: Peter Hall, Governing the Economy: The Politics of State Intervention in Britain and France (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986), especially chapters 1, and 6-10. Recommended: Howard Machin, "Economic Planning: Policy-Making or Policy-Preparation?" in PolicyMaking in France, edited by Paul Godt (New York: Pinter, 1989). Henry Rousso, De Monnet a Masse: Enjeux politiques et objectifs economiques dans le cadre des quatre premiers Plans (1946-1965) (Paris: Editions du CNRS, 1986). Volkmar Lauber, The Political Economy of France from Pompidou to Mitterrand (New York: Praeger, 1983). William James Adams, Restructuring the French Economy: Government and the Rise of Market Competition since World War II (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1989). Jean Fourastié, Les trente glorieuses (Paris: Fayard, 1979). J.-J. Carré, P. Dubois, and E. Malinvaud, French Economic Growth (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976). Saul Estrin and Peter Holmes, French Planning in Theory and Practice (London: Allen and Unwin, 1983), especially pp. 7-58 and 89-120. John and Anne-Marie Hackett, Economic Planning in France (London: Allen and Unwin, 1983). Pascal Pascallon, La Planification de l'économie française (Paris: Masson et cie, 1974). Claude Gruson, Origines et espoirs de la planification française (Paris: Dunod, 1968). Pierre Bauchet, Le Plan dans l'économie française (Paris: FNSP, 1987). John H. McArthur and Bruce R. Scott, Industrial Planning in France (Boston: Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1969). Stephen S. Cohen, Modern Capitalist Planning: The French Model (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969). Alain Lipietz, "Governing the Economy in the Face of International Challenge: From National Developmentalism to National Crisis," in Searching for the New France, edited by James F. Hollifield and George Ross (New York: Routledge, 1991). Oct. 24 B France and the European Community Required: Andrew Moravcsik, The Choice of Europe: Social Purpose and State Power from Messina to Maastricht (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998), selected pages. Recommended: Kenneth Dyson, “EMU, Political Discourse and the Firth French Republic: Historical Institutionalism, Path Dependency and Craftsmen of Discourse,” Modern and Contemporary France 7, 2 (1999): 179-196. David P. Calleo and Eric R. Staal, eds., Europe’s Franco-German Engine (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1998). Simon Bulmer, "History and Institutions of the European Union," in The Economics of the European Union: Policy and Analysis, edited by Mike Artis and Norman Lee (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994). David R. Cameron, "National Interest, the Dilemmas of European Integration, and Malaise," in John T. S. Keeler and Martin A. Schain, Chirac's Challenge: Liberalization, Europeanization, and Malaise in France (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996). Hussein Kassim, "French Autonomy and the European Union," Modern and Contemporary France Vol. 5, No. 2 (May 1997): 167-180. Robert O. Keohane and Stanley Hoffmann, "Institutional Change in Europe in the 1980s," in The New European Community: Decisionmaking and Institutional Change (Boulder: Westview Press, 1991). Ronald Tiersky, France in the New Europe: Changing Yet Steadfast (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1994). Philippe Rollet, "The EC Industrial Policy and Its Impact on French and European Industries," in France and EC Membership Evaluated, edited by François-Georges Dreyfus, Jacques Morizet and Max Peyrard (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), pp. 22-31. John Gillingham, Coal, Steel, and the Rebirth of Europe, 1945-1955: The Germans and French from Ruhr Conflict to Economic Community (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991). Le Commerce extérieur français de Méline à nos jours, Colloque tenu à Bercy le 3 juin 1992 (Paris: Comité pour l'histoire économique et financière de la France, 1993). Michael Loriaux, France After Hegemony: Institutional Change and Domestic Reform (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991). Bruce Marshall, "The French Food Industry Confronts 1992," French Politics and Society (Summer 1990). George Ross, "French Labor and the 1992 Process," French Politics and Society (Summer 1990). Alain Guyomarch and Howard Machin, "A History of Hesitations on the Road to Maastricht," French Politics and Society 10, 4 (Fall 1992). Special issue of French Politics and Society 11, 1 (Winter 1993), essays by Andrew Moravcsik, Sophie Meunier-Aitsahalia and George Ross, Alec Stone, and Ronald Tiersky. Dominique Lamiot and Thierry Francq, "Les Echanges extérieurs de la France durant les années quatre-vingt," Economie et Prévision no. 94-95 (1990), pp. 1-11. Oct. 30 B The Great Transformation (Industial Policy) Required: Vivien A. Schmidt, From State to Market? The Transformation of French Business and Government (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), selected pages. Recommended: Harvey Feigenbaum, Chris Hamnett and Jeffrey Henig, Shrinking the State: The Political Underpinings of Privatization (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998). Victoria Marklin, Cash, Crisis, and Corporate Governance: The Role of National Financial Systems in Industrial Restructuring (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998). Elie Cohen, "National Champions in Search of a Mission," in Jack Hayward, ed., Business Enterprise and European Integration: From National to International Champions in Western Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995). Jack Hayward, "Changing Parternships: Firms and the French State, Modern and Contemporary France Vol. 5, no. 2 (May 1997): 155-166. E. R. Powell, "The TGV Project: A Case of Technico-Economic Dirigisme? Modern and Contemporary France Vol. 5, No. 2 (May 1997): 199-214. Mairi Maclean, "Privatisation, Dirigisme and the Global Economy: An End to French Exceptionalism," Modern and Contemporary France Vol. 5, No. 2 (May 1997): 215-228. Mairi Maclean, "Privatisation in France 1993-94: New Departures, or a Case of plus ça [email protected] West European Politics Vol. 18, No. 2 (April 1995): 273-290. Patrick Fridenson, "Atouts et limites de la modernisation par en haut: les entreprises publiques face à leurs critiques (1944-1986)," in Le Capitalisme français, XIXe-XXe siècle: blocages et dynamismes d'une croissance, edited by Patrick Fridenson and André Straus (Paris: Fayard, 1987). Christian Stoffäes, "Industrial Policy and the State: From Industry to Entreprise," in PolicyMaking in France, edited by Paul Godt (New York: Pinter, 1989). Stephen S. Cohen, Serge Halimi and John Zysman, "Institutions, Politics and Industrial Policy in France," in The Politics of Industrial Policy, edited by Claude Barfield and William Schambra (Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1986). Michel Bauer, "The Politics of State-Directed Privatisation: The Case of France, 1986-88," West European Politics 11, 4 (October 1988). Articles on banking, steel, etc., in Le Capitalisme français, XIXe-XXe siècle: blocages et dynamismes d'une croissance edited by Patrick Fridenson and André Straus (Paris: Fayard, 1987). Claire Andrieu, Lucette Le Van and Antoine Prost, eds., Les Nationalisations de la libération: de l'utopie au compromis (Paris: Presses de la FNSP, 1987). John Sheahan, Promotion and Control of Industry in Postwar France (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1963). Robert L. Frost, Alternating Currents: Nationalized Power in France, 1946-1970 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991). Herrick Chapman, State Capitalism and Working-Class Radicalism in the French Aircraft Industry (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). Harvey B. Feigenbaum, The Politics of Public Enterprise: Oil and the French State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985). Robert Gilpin, France in the Age of the Scientific State (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968). André Straus, "Structures financières et performances des entreprises industrielles en France dans la seconde moitié du XXe siècle," Entreprises et histoire No. 2 (December 1992): 19-33. Elie Cohen, Le Colbertisme "High Tech" (Paris: Hachette, 1992). John Vickers and Vincent Wright, "The Politics of Industrial Privatisation in Western Europe: An Overview," West European Politics 11, 4 (October 1988). Nov. 7 B The Great Transformation II (Finance, Monetary Policy and Managerial Culture) Required: Vivien Schmidt, From State to Market, selected pages. Philip G. Cerny, "From Dirigisme to Deregulation? The Case of Financial Markets," in PolicyMaking in France, edited by Paul Godt (New York: Pinter, 1989). Jonathan Story, “Monetary Union: Economic Competition and Political Negotiation,” in Douglas Webber, ed., The Franco-German Relationship in the European Union (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 20-40. Recommended: Georges Valence, Histoire du franc (Paris: Flammarion, 1998), pp. 359-410. Deborah Owen and Peter Cole, EMU in Perspective (London: Pearson Education Limited, 1999). Karl Karlenthaler, “The Sources of Policy Dynamics: Variations in German and French Policy Towards European Monetary Cooperation,” West European Politics 20, 3 (July 1997): 91-110. Kirsten Bindemann, The Future of European Financial Centers (New York: Routledge, 1999). David Ross Cameron, "From Barre to Balladur: Economic Policy in the Era of the EMS," in Gregory Flynn, ed., Remaking the Hexagon: The New France in the New Europe (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995). Jacques E. Le Cacheux, "The Franc Fort Strategy and the EMU," in Gregory Flynn, ed., Remaking the Hexagon. François Bilger, "The European Monetary System and French Monetary Policy," in FrançoisGeorges Dreyfus, Jacques Morizet and Max Peyrard, France and EC Membership Evaluated (New York: St. Martin Press, 1993). John T. Woolley, "Policy Credibility and European Monetary Institutions," in Euro-Politics: Institutions and Policymaking in the "New" European Community, edited by Alberta M. Sbragia (Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1992). Fritz Franzmeyer and Christian Weise, "Maastricht: A Barrier to Monetary Integration?" Economic Bulletin 31, no. 2 (February 1994): 3-8. Maurice Levy-Leboyer, Alain Plessis, Michel Aglietta, and Christian de Boissieu, eds., Du franc Poincare à l'ecu (Paris: Comite pour l'histoire economique et financiere de la France, 1993). Christian de Boissieu, "The French Banking Sector in the Light of European Financial Integration," in Jean Dermine, ed., European Banking in the 1990s Second Edition (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1993), pp. 193-239. Josette Peyrard, "The French Financial System," in France and EC Membership Evaluated, edited by François-Georges Dreyfus, Jacques Morizet and Max Peyrard (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993). John B. Goodman, Monetary Sovereignty: The Politics of Central Banking in Western Europe (New York: Cornell University Press, 1992). Jean Bouvier, "The Banque de France and the State from 1850 to the Present Day," in Central Banks' Independence in Historical Perspective, edited by Gianni Toniolo (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1988), pp. 73-104. Alain Plessis, "Les Banques, le crédit et l'économie," in Entre l'Etat et le marché: l'économie française des années 1880 à nos jours, edited by Maurice Lévy-Leboyer et Jean-Claude Casanova (Paris: Gallimard, 1991). Stephen S. Cohen, James Galbraith and John Zysman, "Rehabbing the Labyrinth: The Financial System and Industrial Policy in France," in France in the Troubled World Economy, edited by Stephen S. Cohen and Peter A. Gourevitch (London: Butterworth Scientific, 1982). Jacques Georges-Picot, Souvenirs d'une longue carriere: De la rue de Rivoli a la Compagnie de Suez 1920-1971 (Paris: Comite pour l'histoire economique et financiere de la France, 1993). Nov. 14 B Employment, Unemployment and Labor Relations Required: Herrick Chapman, Mark Kesselman, and Martin Schain, eds., A Century of Orgnaized Labor in France: A Union Movement for the Twenty-First Century? (New York: St. Martin’s, 1998), introduction by Chapman, Kesselman, and Schain; essay by Smith. Olivier Brossard, “Emploi et chomage,” in OFCE, L’économie française 2000 (Paris: La Découverte, 2000), pp. 51-61. Eric Heyer and Xavier Timbaud, ALa Réduction du temps du travail,@ in OFCE, L=économie française 2000, pp. 80-87. Patrick Weil, “France, Germany and Immigration Policy,” in Douglas Webber, ed., The FrancoGerman Relationship in the European Union (London: Routledge, 1999), pp. 159-166. Abigail Gregory, “Contemporary Trends in Women=s Employment I France,@ Modern and Contemporary France 8, 2 (May 2000): 175-190. Recommended: Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello, Le Nouvel Esprit du capitalisme (Paris: Gallimard, 1999), esp. pp. 291-343. Philippe Askenazy, “35 heures, incitations et flexibilité,” Revue d’économie politique 110, 1 (January-February 2000). Edmond Malinvaud, "The Rise of Unemployment in France," Economica 53, supplement (1986), pp. S197-217. European Commission, Growth, Competitiveness, Employment. The Challenges and Ways Forward into the 21st Century. White Paper (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1994), esp. pp. 9-21, 53-88, 139-167. Mark Kesselman, "Does the French Labor Movement Have a Future?" in John T. S. Keeler and Martin A. Schain, eds., Chirac's Challenge: Liberalization, Europeanization, and Malaise in France (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996). Christel Lane, Industry and Society in Europe: Stability and Change in Britain, Germany and France (Brookfield, Vt.: Edward Elgar, 1995), chapter 7, "The Transformation of Industrial Relations," pp. 120-144. George Ross, Peter Lange and Maurizio Vannicelli, Unions, Change and Crisis (New York: Allen and Unwin, 1982). René Mouriaux, "Trade Unions, Unemployment, and Regulation: 1962-1989," in Searching for the New France. Chris Howell, Regulating Labor: The State and Industrial Relations Reform in Postwar France (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992). Jacques Rojot, "The Impact of the Community on Industrial Relations in France," in France and EC Membership Evaluated, edited by François-Georges Dreyfus, Jacques Morizet and Max Peyrard (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993). Annie Sabourin-Ragnaud, "Equality Between Men and Women in the Workplace," in France and EC Membership Evaluated. Jacques H. Dreze and Edmond Malinvaud, "Growth and Employment: The Scope of a European Initiative," European Economic Review no. 38 (1994): 489-504. François Michon, "Les théories de la segmentation du marché du travail," Problèmes économiques 2208 16 January 1991, pp. 1-10. Philippe d'Iribane, Le Chômage paradoxal (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1990). Marguerite J. Lorée, "Equal Pay and Equal Opportunity Law in France," in Equal Employment Policy for Women, edited by Ronnie Steinberg Rutner (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980). Michèle Riboud, AAn Analysis of Women=s Labor Force Participation in France: CrossSection Estimates and Time-Series Evidence,@ Journal of Labor Economics 3, 1 (1985): 177199. Michèle Riboud, "Labour Markets Response to Changes in Cohorts Size: The Case of France," European Journal of Population 3 (1987), pp. 359-382. Michel Crozier, The Bureaucratic Phenomenon (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964). Nov. 21 B Regional Decline and Development Required: Jean-François Eck, La France dans la nouvelle économie mondiale (Paris: PUF, 1998), pp. 247281. Jonah D. Levy, Tocqueville=s Revenge: State Society, and Economy in Contemporary France (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), pp. 94-168, 192-227. Recommended: Charles Sabel, AFlexible Specialisation and the Re-Emergence of Regional Economies,@ in Paul Hirst and Jonathan Zeitlin, eds., Reversing Industrial Decline? Industrial Structure and Policy in Britain and Her Competitors (New York: St. Martin=s, 1989). Jean-François Gravier, Paris et le désert français (Paris: Le Portulan, 1947). Rosemary Wakeman, Modernizing the Provincial City: Toulouse, 1945-1975 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997). Vivien Schmidt, Democratizing France: The Political and Administrative History of Decentralization (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Peter Gourevitch, Paris and the Provinces: The Politics of Local Government Reform in France (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980). John Keeler, ACorporatist Decentralization and Commercial Modernization in France: The Royer Law=s impact on Shopkeepers, Supermarkets and the State,@ in Philip Cerny and Martin Schain, eds., Socialism, the State and Public Policy in France (London: Frances Pinter, 1985), pp. 265-291. Nov. 28 B Agriculture Required: Jean-François Eck, La France dans la nouvelle économie mondiale (Paris: PUF, 1998), pp. 210228. Douglas Webber, “Agricultural Policy: The Hard Core,” in Webber, ed., The Franco-German Relationship in the European Union, pp. 111-129. “Dossier: Charting the Future of French Farming,” French Politics, Culture & Society 18, 1 (Spring 2000), essays by Susan Carol Rogers, François Clerc, and Bertrand Hervieu. Recommended: John T. S. Keeler, “Agricultural Power in the European Community: explaining the Fate of CAP and GATT Negotations,” Comparative Politics 28, 2 (January 1996): 127-149. Annie Moulin, Peasantry and Society in France Since 1789 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 165-199. Bertrand Hervieu, "Un impossible deuil: à propos de l'agriculture et du monde rural en France," French Politics and Society 10, 4 (Fall 1992). John Keeler T. S., The Politics of Neocorporatism in France: Farmers, the State and Agricultural Policy-Making in the Fifth Republic (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). Sally Sokoloff, "Socialism and the Farmers," in Socialism, the State and Public Policy in France, edited by Philip G. Cerny and Martin S. Schain (New York: Methuen, 1985). M. C. Cleary, Peasants, Politicans and Producers: The Organisation of Agriculture in France since 1918 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). Henri Mendras, The Vanishing Peasant: Innovation and Change in French Agriculture (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970). Gordon Wright, Rural Revolution in France: The Peasantry in the Twentieth Century (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1964). Pierre Barral, Les Agrariens français de Méline à Pisani (Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 1968). Suzanne Berger, Peasants Against Politics: Rural Organization in Brittany, 1911-1967 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972). Dec. 5 B The Welfare State Required: Herrick Chapman, "French Democracy and the Welfare State," in George Reid Andrews and Herrick Chapman, eds., The Social Construction of Democracy, 1870-1990 (New York: New York University Press, 1995). George Ross, “The Euro, The‘French Model of Society,’ and French Politics,@ French Politics and Society 16, 4 (Fall 1998): 1-16. Daniel Béland and Randall Hansen, AReformig the French Welfare State: Solidarity, Social Exclusion and the Three Crises of Citizenship,@ West European Politics 23, 1 (January 2000): 47-64. Steven Griggs, “Restructuring Health Policy Networks: A French Policy Style?” in Robert Elgie, The Changing French Political System (London: Frank Cass, 1999), pp. 185-204. Recommended: Martin Rhodes, “An Awkward Alliance: France, Germany and Social Policy,” in Douglas Webber, ed., The Franco-German Relationship in the European Union, pp. 130-147. Françoise Gollain, “Des intellectuels contre l’idéologie économique,” Modern and Contemporary France 7, 4 (1999): 485-497. David R. Cameron, "Continuity and Change in French Social Policy: The Welfare State under Gaullism, Liberalism, and Socialism" in The French Welfare State: Surviving Social and Ideological Change, edited by John S. Ambler (New York: New York University Press, 1991). Rémi Lenoir, "Family Policy in France since 1938," in The French Welfare State. Pierre Guillaume, “Naissance de l’Etat providence,” Revue économique 51, 2 (March 2000). David Wilsford, "Reforming French Health Care Policy," in John T. S. Keeler and Martin A. Schain, eds., Chirac's Challenge: Liberalization, Europeanization, and Malaise in France (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996). Christian Calzada and Pierre Volovitch, "Protection sociale: le tournant des années quatrevingt," Données Sociales 1993, INSEE, Paris, pp. 516-523. Stephen S. Cohen and Charles Goldfinger, "From Permacrisis to Real Crisis in French Social Security: The Limits to Normal Politics," in Stress and Contradiction in Modern Capitalism: Public Policy and the Theory of the State, edited by Leon N. Lindberg, Robert Alford, Colin Crouch, and Clause Offe (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1975). Antoine Prost, "L'Evolution de la politique familiale en France de 1938 à 1981," Le Mouvement social 129 (October-December 1984). Susan Pedersen, Family, Dependence, and the Origins of the Welfare State (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993). Elinor A. Accampo, Rachel G. Fuchs, and Mary Lynn Stewart, Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995). Peter Baldwin, The Politics of Social Solidarity: Class Bases of the European Welfare State, 1875-1975 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). Douglas E. Ashford, "In Search of the Etat Providence," in Searching for the New France, edited by James F. Hollifield and George Ross (New York: Routledge, 1991). Pierre Rosanvallon, La Crise de l'Etat-providence (Paris: Seuil, 1981). Dec. 12 B Trade and Globalization François Eck, La France dans la nouvelle économie mondiale (Paris: PUF, 1998), pp. 283-324. Jacques Le Cacheux, “On Economic Sovereignty: European Nation-States Between Globalization and Regional Integration,” The Tocqueville Review 20, 2 (1999): 113-123. Sophie Meunier, “What Single Voice? European Institution and EU-U.S. Trade Negotiations,” International Organization 54, 1 (Winter 2000): 103-135. Recommended: Marino Regini, “Between Deregulation and Social Pacts: The Responses of European Economies to Globalization,” Politics and Society 28, 1 (March 2000): 5-33. William James Adams, "France and Global Competition," in Gregory Flynn, ed., Remaking the Hexagon: The New France in the New Europe (Boulder: Westview Press, 1995. Suzanne Berger, "Trade and Identity: The Coming Protectionism?" in Flynn, Remaking the Hexagon, pp. 195-212. Paul Epstein, "The Uruguay Round of GATT Negotiations: Limitations on Government Control of Trade Policy," Modern and Contemporary France Vol. 5, No. 2 (May 1997): 181198. François-Georges Dreyfus, "France, the Third World and the Community," in France and EC Membership Evaluated, edited by François-Georges Dreyfus, Jacques Morizet and Max Peyrard (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993), 135-149. William James Adams, Restructuring the French Economy: Government and the Rise of Market Competition Since World War II (Washington: Brookings, 1989). Daniel Verdier, Democracy and International Trade: Britain France, and the United States, 1860-1990 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994). Patrick A. Messerlin, "The Impact of Trade and Capital Movements on Labour: Evidence on the French Case," OECD Economic Studies No. 24 (1995), pp. 89-124. Le Commerce extérieur français de Méline à nos jours Colloque tenu à Bercy le 3 juin 1992 (Association pour le développement de l'histoire economique, Comité pour l'histoire économique et financière de la France, 1992).