Features of space frames Space frames are rigid, lightweight, and can be defined as truss-like structures. It is constructed by engaging the columns in a geometric pattern. Space frames can be used efficiently to cover large areas with minimal internal support. The structural robustness of the space frame is due to the inherent stiffness of the triangle and the bending loads transmitted as tensile and compressive loads along each strut. Design analysis of spatial frame structure Space Frame structures are usually designed using a rigid matrix. A special feature of the stiffness matrix of the building space framework is the independence of the angular coefficients. If the joints are stiff enough, you can ignore the angular deflection and simplify the calculation. More technically, this is known as an isotropic vector matrix or an octet armature with a single unit width. For more complex variations, you can change the length of the stanchions to bend the entire structure or incorporate other geometries. Spatial frames structures are a common feature of modern building construction. They are often found in large ceiling lights in modernist commercial and industrial buildings. Different classification of spatial frame structure Space Frame structures falls into two categories: curvature classification and placement classification. More details are given below. Curvature classification of spatial frame structure Spatial plane roof: These spatial structures are composed of plane substructures. And the shear forces are supported diagonally. Barrel Vault: This type of vault has a single arch section. In general, this type of spatial structure does not require tetrahedral modules or pyramids as part of the backing. Classification by arrangement of elements of spatial frame structure Single-layer grid: All elements are placed on the surface for estimation. Two-Layer Grid-Elements are placed in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance. Each layer forms a grid of triangles, squares, or hexagons, and the projections of the nodes in the layer can overlap or offset each other. The diagonal bar connects the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of mesh, the elements are associated with three groups: top chord, chord, bottom diagonal chord. Triple Layer Grid: Elements are placed in three parallel layers that are diagonally joined. In most cases, it is flat. Hanging case Other examples classified as space frames are pleated metal structures, hanging roofs, and pneumatic structures. Different types of space frame structure Why does the structure of the spatial frame stand out? One of the most important advantages of the space frame structure is its lightweight. This is mainly due to the fact that the material is spatially distributed so that the load transfer mechanism is primarily axial tension or compression. Therefore, all materials for a particular item are used to the fullest extent. Single layer structures also called Gridshells are often mass-produced in factories to maximize the use of industrialized building systems. Such units can be easily transported by semi-skilled workers and quickly assembled in the field. As a result, spatial frames can be built at a low cost.