Telechargé par Ali Ouchar

design-and-simulation-of-implantable-blood-pressure-sensor-using-2018 (1)

Design and Simulation of Implantable
Blood Pressure Sensor Using COMSOL
K.S.N. Murthy, M. Siva Kumar, K. Suma Bindu, K. Satyanarayana,
D. Sivateja and G. Sai Hemanth
Abstract This paper presents the design and simulation of blood pressure sensor
for healthcare and biomedical applications. Generally blood pressure can be measured by using sensors externally, but here is an implantable sensor which is used
for continuous monitoring of blood pressure. The software used is COMSOL
Multiphysics, a general purpose software platform for modelling and simulating the
advanced applications. This work describes the design of nanotube-based sensor
with a basic known technology of MEMS. The main physics used in this design is
solid mechanics and time-dependent analysis which is performed to certain values
of pressure that is applied on the model. The pressure versus displacement analysis
is performed, and it is observed that the pressure is directly proportional to displacement. The device performance is compared by using materials like Si and Au.
The result shows that Au has good sensitivity than Si which is verified by calibration method.
Keywords Blood pressure
Displacement Biomedical applications COMSOL
K.S.N. Murthy (&) M. Siva Kumar K. Suma Bindu K. Satyanarayana D. Sivateja G. Sai Hemanth
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, K L University,
Vaddeswaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
e-mail: [email protected]
M. Siva Kumar
e-mail: [email protected]
K. Suma Bindu
e-mail: [email protected]
K. Satyanarayana
e-mail: [email protected]
D. Sivateja
e-mail: [email protected]
G. Sai Hemanth
e-mail: [email protected]
© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018
R. Singh et al. (eds.), Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices,
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 624,
K.S.N. Murthy et al.
1 Introduction
An innovative technology, which has many attractions like miniaturization, low
power consumption, performing multiple operations with single equipment, is
MEMS. The technology of MEMS indicates that it produces the devices with the
combination of both electrical and mechanical components [1]. The main advantage
of MEMS is its size which ranges between few micrometres to millimetres. MEMS
devices have greater ability in many domains like sensing, actuating and controlling
[1]. The MEMS-based sensors can be used for biomedical applications also [5].
Bio-MEMS devices can be manufactured based on the operation of various
parameters like temperature, pressure, capacitance, voltage and current. This paper
provides a brief idea about blood pressure detection using pressure as a sensing
element [2]. Pressure is an important parameter in real-life applications. It is defined
as force per unit area [3]. The mathematical expression of pressure is
Pressure ð pÞ = Force/Area
Blood pressure measurement which is the most important routine check-up in
order to have well-being health. The normal blood pressure can be expressed in
terms of systolic over diastolic pressure as 120/80 (mmHg) [6]. Systolic is the
highest level of our blood pressure when the heart beats and diastolic is lowest level
of our BP as heart relaxes between beats.
This raise and fall of blood pressure leads to many diseases.
1. High BP leads to hypertension which causes heart attacks or strokes, trouble
with memory.
2. Low BP causes hypotension which results in dizziness, fainting, diarrhoea, etc.
In general, blood pressure can be measured by using some instruments like
sphygmomanometer and some asculatory methods. But these instruments have a
limitation that they cannot detect blood pressure when the body has mobility. So, a
design of MEMS-based sensor is proposed to implant in a human body, which is
used for continuous monitoring of blood pressure [4, 6]. This helps the doctor to
provide an early detection and an efficient treatment to the patients suffering with
blood pressure. The implantable pressure sensor is interfaced to an external circuit
for the wireless monitoring and digital display of blood pressure. The sensor is
connected to RF microcontroller, a balun network and a chip antenna [4, 7] (Figs. 1
and 2).
The total work is performed with the help of software named COMSOL
Multiphysics. COMSOL Multiphysics is finite element analyser, solver and simulation software for various physics and engineering applications [6]. The virtual
blood pressure sensor model is designed using this tool followed by simulations.
This paper describes a model for continuous monitoring of blood pressure using a
nanotube-based design and also its analysis by using various parameters [9].
Design and Simulation of Implantable Blood Pressure Sensor …
Fig. 1 An asculatory method
to measure blood pressure
Fig. 2 Measurement of
blood pressure using
2 Design Procedure
A virtual view of the model is designed in COMSOL [8], which has various physics
and engineering applications. A 3D structure is developed by considering solid
mechanics as the main physics which is a part of structural mechanics [6]. There are
many different analysers present in the tool among which the time-dependent
analysis is selected as the variations in blood pressure are observed with respect to
When the model is taken into consideration, the design is a nanotube-based
sensor which is almost identical to cantilever sensor [10]. A component needs to be
created which has many designing facilities like geometry, definitions, materials,
physics used and meshing. In geometry, a cylindrical structure is designed with
some dimensions like height and radius. Similarly, another cylindrical structure is
designed and placed inside the first cylinder by using Booleans and partitions in
K.S.N. Murthy et al.
geometry. The structure has fixed base at one end and free suspension at other end.
Since it is an implantable sensor, the size is an important parameter [6]. The
structure is designed in micrometres (µm), as the diameter of the blood vessels
where the sensor is placed is in micrometre range. A height of 8 µm and radius of
2 µm are used for design. After the structural design is performed, the sensing
ability should be developed. As pressure is the main sensing parameter, some load
like boundary or point load is applied to the design with the help of definitions in
the tool. The materials like silicon (Si) and gold (Au) are opted by selecting the
required domains in the model. In material analysis, the Young’s modulus and
Poisson ratio of Si and Au are considered.
For silicon,
1. Poisson ratio = 0.17
2. Young’s modulus = 150 GPa
For gold,
1. Poisson ratio = 0.42
2. Young’s modulus = 79 GPa
Meshing is performed which is a finite element analyser. Some parameters like
pressure and displacement are created by entering certain values of pressure in
Pa/kPa. The ranges of values between 5 and 11 kPa are provided. The model is
simulated for a required amount of selected time. After computation, the displacement is recorded with the variation of pressure.
3 Simulation and Analysis Using COMSOL
The designed model is simulated with the help of COMSOL, and analysis is performed by varying dimensions of the sensor, material and pressure.
Some values of pressure that is higher and lower to normal blood pressure
120/80 are given to the model. Different boundary loads are applied at the free end,
and their displacements are recorded simultaneously. The graphical analysis is also
performed along with the simulation result.
Material Analysis Using Si and Au
The working performance of the sensor changes with change in material. The
model is simulated by using silicon and gold materials. The operating conditions
change when different values of pressure are applied. The simulations and values of
displacement for different values of pressure are recorded (Figs. 3 and 4; Table 1).
Design and Simulation of Implantable Blood Pressure Sensor …
Fig. 3 Simulation of nano tube sensor for blood pressure sensor using silicon
Fig. 4 Simulation of blood pressure sensor using gold
K.S.N. Murthy et al.
Table 1 Variation of displacement with pressure for Si and Au
Pressure (Pa)
Materials used
Silicon displacement (lm)
Gold displacement (lm)
Pressure versus Displacement Analysis
The boundary loads and point loads are applied to the model for the variation in
pressure. The ranges of values are in between 5 and 11 kPa. After computation of
the model, it is observed that there is an increase of displacement with increase of
pressure. This shows that displacement is directly proportional to blood pressure.
Thus, the blood pressure can be calibrated in terms of displacement of the sensor.
The graphical representation of pressure versus displacement is shown in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5 Graph showing the variation of displacement with pressure
Design and Simulation of Implantable Blood Pressure Sensor …
Calibration of the Sensor
The difference in displacement for 1500 Pa when Si material is used:
Between the pressure 11000–9500 Pa = 0.575 µm
Between the pressure 9500–8000 Pa = 0.080 µm
Between the pressure 8000–6500 Pa = 0.079 µm
Between the pressure 6500–5000 Pa = 0.080 µm
The difference in displacement for 1500 Pa when Au material is used:
Between the pressure 11000–9500 Pa = 0.190 µm
Between the pressure 9500–8000 Pa = 0.190 µm
Between the pressure 8000–6500 Pa = 0.794 µm
Between the pressure 6500–5000 Pa = 0.191 µm
The calibrated value of pressure sensor for 1 Pa with respect to silicon and gold
materials is 1.566e−4 and 2.2733e−4 µm, respectively.
4 Conclusion
The analysis shows that there is an increase in displacement as pressure increases.
So displacement is directly proportional to pressure. When materials are considered,
the calibrated value of pressure sensor for 1 Pa to the silicon is 1.566e−4 and to the
gold is 2.2733e−4. This shows that gold has good accuracy and sensitivity when
compared to other materials. So it is concluded that gold is the preferred material
for the implantation of blood pressure sensor.
5 Future Scope
Similar to blood pressure detection, protein concentration can also be detected since
the displacement of nanotube is based on number of substances which is directly
proportional to the protein concentration. So protein concentration can be detected
by addition of some materials.
1. R. U. Sonje, S. V. Borde, “Micro-Electromechanical Systems (Mems)”, IJMER, Vol. 4 Iss.
3 (Mar. 2014), 2249–6645, Page no: 1, 2.
2. Dr. Prasanna Kumar S.C., Jyothsna D., “Biomedical Applications Of Mems & Nems Pressure
Transducers/ Sensors”, IJIRD, Vol 2 Issue (5 May, 2013), 2278–0211, Page no: 6.
3. Nurul Amziah Md. Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ongs Kai
Sheng, “Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications”, International
K.S.N. Murthy et al.
Journal of Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering, Vol:
9, No: 8 (2015), Page no: 2.
M. Theodor, J. Fiala, D. Ruh, K. Förster, C. Heilmann, F. Beyersdorf, Y. Manoli, H. Zappe,
“Implantable accelerometer system for the determination of blood pressure using reflected
wave transit time”, ELSEVIER, Sensors and Actuators A 206 (2014) 151–158, Page no: 2.
308–315 (Dec. 2013) 2231–6604, Page no: 1.
Raghavendra Nagaralli, Kiran kumar B. Balavalad, B. G. Sheeparamatti, “Modeling Of
Implantable Blood Pressure And Protein Sensor Using COMSOL/Multiphysics”, IJIRS, Vol.
2 Issue 9 (September 2013) 2319–9725, Page no: 2, 3, 4.
Peng Cong, Wen H. Ko and Darrin J. Young, “Wireless implantable Blood Pressure sensing
Microsystem Design for monitoring of small Laboratory Animals”, Sensors and materials,
Vol. 20, No. 7(2008) 327–340, Page no: 3.
P. Patnaik, S.K. Kamilla, Debi Prasad Das, “Alternate glucometer bio-Sensor based on
Ultrasonic MEMS transceivers”, Expert from the proceedings of the 2013 COMSOL
Conference in Bangalore, page no: 3.
Debashid Maji, Ravi Shankar Vunnam, C.P. Ravikumar and Soumen Das, “Simulation of
MEMS Based flexible flow sensor for Biomedical Application”, COMSOL Conference 2011,
November 4–5, Page no: 3.
S. Anand Selvin, S. Aravind Lovelin, N. Boovaraga Moorthy, Anju Gupta, M. Alagappan,
Venkateswaran Ramalingam, “Design and Simulation of Carbon Nanotube based Piezo
resistive Pressure Sensor”, Expert from the proceedings of the 2011 COMSOL Conference in
Bangalore, Page no: 3.