Telechargé par geraud.goune

krim2018

publicité
EPE Journal
European Power Electronics and Drives
ISSN: 0939-8368 (Print) 2376-9319 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tepe20
Control with high performances based DTC
strategy: FPGA implementation and experimental
validation
Saber Krim, Soufien Gdaim, Abdellatif Mtibaa & Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni
To cite this article: Saber Krim, Soufien Gdaim, Abdellatif Mtibaa & Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni
(2018): Control with high performances based DTC strategy: FPGA implementation and
experimental validation, EPE Journal, DOI: 10.1080/09398368.2018.1548802
To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/09398368.2018.1548802
Published online: 27 Nov 2018.
Submit your article to this journal
View Crossmark data
Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at
http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?journalCode=tepe20
EPE JOURNAL
https://doi.org/10.1080/09398368.2018.1548802
ARTICLE
Control with high performances based DTC strategy: FPGA implementation
and experimental validation
Saber Krima, Soufien Gdaimb, Abdellatif Mtibaab and Mohamed Faouzi Mimounia
a
Research Unit of Industrial Systems study and Renewable Energy, National Engineering School of Monastir, University of Monastir,
Monastir, Tunisia; bLaboratory of Electronics and Microelectronics, Faculty of Sciences, University of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia
ABSTRACT
KEYWORDS
This paper aims to improve the induction motor performances using a modified Direct
Torque Control (DTC). The DTC is featured by its simple structure and fast dynamic response.
Also, it does not require a speed sensor and it is less dependent on the motor parameters.
However, the basic handicaps of this method are the torque ripples and the current distortions due to the presence of the hysteresis controllers. This paper aims; firstly, to replace the
hysteresis controllers and the switching table by a fuzzy logic system in order to overcome
these handicaps. Furthermore, the sampling frequency is another parameter which must be
investigated to reduce the commutation losses and the harmonic stator current waves. The
second purpose of this paper is to reduce the execution time using a Field Programmable
Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA is able to execute the Fuzzy DTC (FDTC) with a higher sampling
frequency, thanks to its parallel processing relative to the Digital Signal Processor (DSP). The
FDTC model is verified by simulation using system generator tool and validated by experimentation utilizing an FPGA Virtex 5. Thus, excellent performances at low processing time are
obtained using the Xilinx FPGA Virtex 5.
Direct torque control; fuzzy
logic system; real time;
Xilinx system generator;
Field Programmable Gate
Array (FPGA)
1. Introduction
Recently, Induction Motors (IMs) are the most used
motors in industrial applications thanks to theirs
simple design, low maintenance, low cost, and it
operates in open loop [1].
Day by day, the basic Direct Torque Control (DTC)
is becoming more popular in the industrial world
thanks to its simple structure, its robustness under
motor parameter variation and its rapid dynamic
response, and because it does not require a speed
sensor [2–4]. Since its invention, the basic DTC is
counted as the most efficient approach for controlling
the induction motor [5]. Despite of the cited advantages, the basic DTC produces a torque and a flux with
high ripples, and a stator current with high distortions,
which affect the stator winding and reduce the motor
service life. The conventional DTC can be improved
utilizing the Space Vector Modulation (SVM) and
discrete space vector modulation techniques, as given
in [6–12]. In this case, it is possible to apply the
required stator voltage vector and guarantee an operation with constant switching frequency, which consequently reduces the ripples and the commutation
losses. However, in these methods accurate design of
Proportional Integral (PI) controllers for the torque
and the flux is required which affects the system
robustness, the stability and the dynamic of the control
system, due to the variation of the induction motor
CONTACT Saber Krim
[email protected]
Monastir, University of Monastir, Tunisia
© 2018 European Power Electronics and Drives Association
parameters and the external disturbances. Others
researchers have associated the DTC-SVM and the
multilevel inverter to control the switching frequency
of the inverter and reduce the ripples [9,13–20]. The
main technologies of the multilevel inverter used in
the industrial applications are the Neutral Point
Clamped (NPC) [17,18], the Flying Capacitors (FC)
[19], and the Cascaded H-Bridge (CHB) [9,20]. Yet,
using the multilevel inverter, switching losses
increases, the reliability decreases and the price of the
system increases. Other studies for the DTC have been
developed, such as the combination between the DTCSVM and the predictive control [21], to control the
switching frequency and select the desired voltage
vector. This method provides a significant improvement in terms of ripples. Nevertheless, in this case the
algorithm is based on a complex mathematical model
that depends on several machine parameters. In recent
works a combination between the DTC-SVM and
sliding mode controllers is developed to reduce the
ripples, improve the system robustness and reject perturbations [7,22,23]. However, the main problem in
these controllers is the chattering phenomenon, due to
discontinuous nature of the control law which introduces a persistent static error and the need for knowledge of the system dynamics. In addition, the sliding
mode controllers are difficult in design and tuning. In
recent years, the artificial intelligent techniques like the
Research Unit of Industrial Systems study and Renewable Energy, National Engineering School of
2
S. KRIM ET AL.
fuzzy logic and neural networks have gained more
importance to improve the electrical system performances. In order to improve the conventional DTC
performances, few researchers have used the fuzzy
logic and sliding mode fuzzy to improve the conventional DTC performances by replacing the PI controller by an intelligent controller, as given in [24,25]. In
these works, the speed transient response is improved
but the torque ripples are not much reduced.
Improvements in the DTC performances using neural
networks based switching controller is developed in
some researches works, as given in [26]. The drawback
of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based switching
controller is that it doesn’t give heuristic knowledge of
process in selection of optimal switching voltage vector; in addition the control algorithm is complex and
requires a processor with high computation power. To
overcome the limitations of all the cited control strategies, the fuzzy logic can be used to improve the
nonlinear system performances. The fuzzy logic process is easy to understand due to its simple logical
structure and inference mechanism. In fact, the conventional DTC uses two hysteresis controllers to control the torque and the stator flux. These controllers
generate two states, which produce the same results for
the small and the big error of the torque and the stator
flux. As consequence, the generated switching states of
the inverter cannot produce the best voltages vectors
to make the flux and the torque errors both zero. This
leads in ripples of torque and flux [27–29], and variations of the switching frequency [30]. In paper [31],
the authors present an analysis of the switching frequency variation which is caused by the hysteresis
band, the motor speed and torque slope. These ripples
can be reduced if the torque and flux errors are subdivided into several smaller subsections on which different control action is taken. However, it is hard to
obtain the optimal subsection boundaries for the torque and flux errors. Furthermore, the torque ripples
are affected by the width of the torque hysteresis band
[32]. These ripples change proportionally with the
variations in hysteresis bandwidth of the torque.
However, due to the discrete nature of the control
system, there might be still ripples even with the zero
bandwidth of the hysteresis controller. In addition, if
the bandwidth decreases, the inverter switching frequency increases, which consequently increases the
switching losses in the semiconductors. To solve this
problem the bandwidth of the torque hysteresis controller must be optimized in order to keep the ripple
level and switching frequency variations within acceptable limits. Therefore, the Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC)
based on the language rules can be used to adapt the
torque hysteresis band in order to reduce the torque
ripples and provide a precise speed response by selecting the suitable voltage vector [33–35]. The Fuzzy logic
uses the people’s experience knowledge to release the
rule base and it is based on intuition and simulation
[36]. The FLC is not based on the IM model and its
parameters. It is more suitable for the imprecise processes and does not require any mathematical models.
Also, the FLS is a more effective technique when the
system is based on a severely nonlinear mathematical
model [37]. The FLC has been proposed in several
researches work to select the optimal voltage vectors
in conventional DTC [38–41] and to solve the problem
of variable switching frequency [42,43]. Other
researchers have used the fuzzy logic in speed control
and flux observer to improve the electrical motors
performances [44–47]. In addition, the fuzzy logic is
used in some research works to improve the DTC
performances and to reduce the commutation losses
in the inverter, as given in [48–50]. In paper [48], the
authors presented a fuzzy logic controller associated to
the DTC of PMSM to reduce the ripples and the
switching losses in the inverter by arranging the inverter switching. In paper [49,50], the authors present
a combination between the DTC and the fuzzy logic
control in order to provide an operation with low
ripples and to keep the switching losses at an acceptable level, by selecting a suitable voltage vector for
each sampling period. This demonstrates that utilizing
the fuzzy logic technique, it is possible to improve the
DTC performances by reducing the ripples of the
inverter losses.
The first contribution in this paper is oriented
toward the use of a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) to replace
the switching table and the hysteresis controllers, in
order to reduce the torque and the flux ripples, as well
as the stator current distortions. The design with the
XSG tool and the hardware implementation on the
FPGA of the proposed Fuzzy DTC (FDTC) control
strategy is the second contribution in this paper. In
this study, the torque and the flux errors and the stator
flux vector position are fuzzified into several fuzzy subsets in order to select a more suitable space voltage
vector to smooth the torque and the flux ripples and
control the switching frequency variations. With the
proposed method, the transistors are only switched
when it is needed which consequently reduces the
inverter switching losses. The Fuzzy rule base provides
precise control by selecting optimal switching state of
the inverter in order to meet required torque and flux
demand by the induction motor. The performance of
the proposed method has been verified by digital simulation utilizing the Matlab/Simulink environment and
the Xilinx System Generator (XSG) tool, and experimental validation using an FPGA Virtex 5 and
a squirrel cage induction motor.
Traditionally, two main families of digital devices
are used to control the induction motor drive. The
first family integrates the microcontroller (STM32F3,
STM32F4, STM32F1. . .) [51,52] and the Digital
Signal Processor (DSP) [53–55] which can be
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
programmed with ‘C code’ or a graphical programming approach MATLAB/Simulink [56]. The second
family integrates the Field Programmable Gate Array
(FPGA) device (FPGA) [57] which can be programmed with VHSIC Hardware Description
Language (VHDL) or Verilog code. However, the
limitation factor of the STM microcontrollers is the
computing power and the processing speed which
depends of the algorithm complexity, this limit allows
fixing an important sampling period which creates
delays in the control loop. The DSPs controllers’
devices are considered as an appropriate solution in
electrical drives applications [58] which integrate
a high-performing processor core based on
a hardware accelerator computing block and few
peripherals to communicate with the external environment. It should be noted that the sampling frequency of the processor depends on the
computational burden due to the serial processing,
which consequently creates delays in the feedback
loop and reduces the control algorithm performances.
In fact, if the sampling time increased, the torque and
flux ripples and the stator current harmonic waveforms increased [59,60]. For the conventional DTC
algorithm, generally the sampling frequency of the
DSP (DSPACE 1104 based on a DSPTMS320F240)
can reach up to 20 kHz [61]. However, this sampling
frequency is still insufficient for the hysteresis controllers operations to reach the same performances
provided by the analogue control solutions, such as
the accuracy and the absence of the delays in the
feedback loop. To overcome the DSP limitation,
a combination between the DSP and the FPGA has
been developed by some researchers to reduce the
calculation burden of the DSP, by distributing some
algorithm tasks to the FPGA [62,63], thus the sampling period is minimized and the ripples are
reduced. However, this is not a solution for commercialization, due to the complexity of the interfacing
circuits and the high cost. To overcome these limitations, the FPGA can be chosen as an alternative
solution to control the induction motor with shorter
execution time, which can be beneficial in high performance applications. In this paper, the DTC based
on a FLS, referred to as Fuzzy-DTC (FDTC) can be
considered as a complex control algorithm that
requires a digital device with a high computation
power. Recently, several researchers have used the
software solutions like the DSP (e.g. dSPACE 1104)
to control the electrical motor [61,64,65]. However,
the main limitation factor of these solutions is that
the processing speed depends on the complexity of
the algorithm by adopting a serial processing [57]. In
this context, other researchers have explored utilizing
the FPGA to overcome the DSP limitation [60,66–
68]. In this work, the FPGA is chosen, thanks to its
parallel processing. Thus, using the FPGA it is
3
possible to implement more complex algorithms
with a low execution time and a smaller sampling
period which can reach up to 200 kHz [68].
Configuring an FPGA, a bitstream file is required,
which can be generated using a VHDL or Verilog
code. On the other hand, programming the VHDL
or Verilog is difficult and requires a lot of prototyping
time. To overcome this problem, a Xilinx System
Generator (XSG) toolbox is used in this work to automatically generate the VHDL (or Verilog) code and
the bitstream file [69,70]. The XSG is a toolbox integrated into a Simulink environment, developed by
Xilinx and featured by its simplicity and rapid implementation time [71]. In this paper, the DTC based on
the fuzzy logic control has been developed, designed
from the XSG tool, verified by digital simulation and
experimental validation utilizing an FPGA Virtex 5.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows: The
basic DTC principle is detailed in section 2. The proposed FDTC is developed in section 3. In section 4, the
design, the digital simulation, and hardware implementation on the FPGA of the basic DTC and the FDTC are
presented. A comparative study between the basic DTC
and the FDTC is shown in section 5 by experimental
results. Finally, a conclusion is presented in section 6.
2. Basic DTC principle
In the Concordia reference (α, β), the IM model can
be described as follows:
8
dφsα
>
>
> dt ¼ vsα Rs isα
>
>
>
< dφsβ ¼ vsβ Rs isβ
dt
(1)
dφrα
>
¼ Rr irα ωφrβ
>
>
dt
>
>
>
: dφrβ
dt ¼ Rr irβ þ ωφrα
where
●
ðvsα ; vsβ Þ; ðφsα ; φsβ Þ; ðφrα ; φrβ Þ and ðisα ; isβ Þ: are
the components of the voltage, the stator flux,
the rotor flux and stator current respectively, in
the Concordia reference (α, β). Rs ; Rr and ω: are
the stator resistance, the rotor resistance and the
motor speed.
The mechanical motor behavior is described as
follows:
( dΩ
J dt ¼ Te Tl f Ω
(2)
Tem ¼ 32 Np φsα isβ φsβ isα
where
●
Te and Tl are the electromagnetic torque and
the load one. J; f and Np are rotor inertia,
4
S. KRIM ET AL.
viscous friction coefficient, and the number of
pole pairs.
The basic idea of the DTC method is to control the
stator flux and the electromagnetic torque simultaneously through the selected voltage vector for each
sampling time. The basic DTC diagram is given in
Figure 1 [2,4,5].
where the components φsα and φsβ are represented
by the following equations:
ð
8
>
< φsα ¼ ðvsα Rs isα Þdt
ð
(3)
>
: φ ¼ vsβ Rs isβ dt
sβ
The components ðvsα ; vsβ Þ are expressed as:
According to Figure 1, the torque and the flux are
both controlled by two hysteresis controllers. Indeed,
the torque and flux errors present the hysteresis controller inputs. These controllers present in their outputs two logical decisions ðKφ and KT Þ.
To determine the position where the stator flux
vector is located, the following equation can be used:
φsβ
θs ¼ arctg
(4)
φsα
The basic DTC consists in subdividing the Concordia
(α, β) reference in six sectors (sector 1 to sector 6);
each sector is defined by an angle of 60° as given by
Figure 2 [2,4]. The different sectors and voltagevector positions are illustrated in Figure 2.
Figure 1. Block diagram of the basic DTC.
As presented in Figure 1, the voltage vector is
selected through the hysteresis controller’s decisions
ðKφ ; KT Þ and the position of the stator flux vector
(N), utilizing the switching Table [4].
3. Proposed approach: fuzzy direct torque
control (FDTC)
3.1. FDTC principle
The real problem of the basic DTC is that the torque
and the flux are known by high ripples because of the
poor choice of a voltage vector for each sampling
time. These ripples are caused by the hysteresis controllers and the switching table, which are replaced by
a fuzzy approach. The fuzzy logic is able to generate
the desired voltage vector, which consequently
reduces the ripples. The FDTC diagram of an induction motor is illustrated in Figure 3.
In order to get a control with high performances,
a Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) is used to replace the hysteresis controllers and the switching table, as illustrated in
Figure 3. The FLS has three inputs and one output. The
flux error, the torque error and the angle θS (stator flux
vector position) are the FLS inputs. The voltage vector Vi
is the FLS output. The FLS is based on three steps [72]:
i) the fuzzification step consists in to converting input
analogue variables into fuzzy variables, ii) a base of rules
which is based on the fuzzy rules and describes the
functionality of the fuzzy system—in this step we have
found also a fuzzy inference engine which associates the
inputs variables with fuzzy rules, iii) the defuzzification is
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
β
V3 (0 1 0)
V2 (1 1 0)
3
Sector 1
2
α
1
4
V1 (1 0 0)
V4 (0 1 1)
6
5
V5 (0 0 1)
V0 (0 0 0)/ V7 (1 1 1)
V6 (1 0 1)
Figure 2. Sectors and voltage vectors.
the final step of the reasoning fuzzy system, which consists in converting the fuzzy output to a real variable
usable to control the system.
3.2. Fuzzy variables
The performance of the FLS is influenced by the shape
of the membership function, the fuzzy reasoning, and
the defuzzification method. In this work, symmetric
triangular and trapezoidal membership functions were
choosing. The shape of these membership functions
reduces the complexity of the FLS, the sampling time
of the system and the used resources from the FPGA.
Thanks to its simplicity, the shape of these membership functions is used in several research works [73–
75]. The widths of the membership functions can be
chosen by the experience of the designer and
Figure 3. FDTC diagram.
5
optimized by simulations under different conditions
of speed and torque.
As presented in Figure 4, the stator flux error is
described by an overlapping of three fuzzy sets
named as: Positive (P), Zero (Z) and Negative (N).
In this figure it can be noticed that the membership
function of the stator flux error is described by an
isosceles triangle for the ‘Z’ fuzzy sets and two trapezoidal functions for ‘P’ and ‘N’ fuzzy sets.
where F1 = –F2 = 0.024Wb. As presented in Figure 5,
the torque error is described by an overlapping of five
fuzzy sets named as: Positive Large (PL), Positive Small
(PS), ZE, Negative Small (NS) and Negative Large (NL).
The membership functions of the torque error is
described by three isosceles triangles for the PS, ZE
and NS fuzzy sets and two trapezoidal functions for
PL and NL fuzzy sets, as shown in Figure 5.
In this paper the widths of the membership functions can be chosen by the experience of the designer
and optimized by simulations under different conditions of speed and torque. In fact, the parameters F1,
F2, T1 and T2 are chosen by intuition and simulations. After determining the suitable value of these
µϕ
N
1
Z
P
eϕ (Wb)
F2
0
F1
Figure 4. Fuzzy membership functions of flux error eφ.
6
S. KRIM ET AL.
μc
NL
1
NS
ZE PS
PL
eT (N.m)
-1
T2
0
T1
1
Figure 5. Fuzzy membership functions of torque error eTem.
twelve fuzzy sets for the flux vector position. The
combination between these fuzzy sets provides 180
fuzzy rules (3*5*12 = 180). The fuzzy rules are
archived in the following Table 1:
Each control rule is based on three fuzzy-set
inputs, as given by the following equation that
describes the first fuzzy rules R1.
R1 : Ifðeφ is PÞ & ðeT is PLÞ & ðθS is θi Þ then ðVi is V1 Þ
where T1 = –T2 = 0.52Nm.
(5)
parameters, we have generated the VHDL code and
then the Bitstream file which is used for the configuration of the FPGA in the experimental step.
The universe of discourse of the stator flux vector
position is equal to 360° ([0,2π]). In the basic DTC,
this position is divided into six sectors. For more
precision, the universe of discourse is divided into
12 fuzzy sets (ϴ1 to ϴ12). The membership functions
are presented by 12 equidistant isosceles triangles, as
shown in Figure 6.
As illustrated in Figure 7, the FLS output is described
by eight singletons, which are eight voltage vectors Vi
(i = 0. . .7), two zero vectors and six active vectors.
3.3. Fuzzy control rules
The fuzzy controller behaviour is described by the
rules base which reflects the knowledge acquired by
the human operator that manipulates the process to
be controlled [59]. The fuzzy control rules can be
synthesized by the extending of the diagram presented in Figure 3 into 12 sectors. The FLS has
three inputs which are presented by Figures 4–6.
These inputs are described by three fuzzy sets of the
flux error, five fuzzy sets of the torque error and
3.4. Fuzzy inferences
The fuzzy inference method used in this paper is
based on the Min-Max decision which is proposed
by MAMDANI. This method realizes the logic
operator ‘&’ with the Minimum (Min) function.
Also, the conclusion ‘then’ of each fuzzy rule is
realized by the ‘Min’ function. Considering the
following fuzzy rule:
Ri : If ðeφ is Xi Þ & ðeT is Yi Þ & ðθS is θi Þ then ðV is Vi Þ
(6)
where Xi, Yi, and ϴi are the fuzzy set of the inputs
variable eφ, eT and θ respectively. Vi and Ri are the
fuzzy singleton of the output and fuzzy rule number i.
The membership functions of the variables X, Y, ϴ
and V are given by μX, μY, μϴ and μV respectively.
The weighting factor δi for the ith fuzzy rule can be
decided utilizing the ‘Min’ operator, as given by the
following equation:
δi ¼ min ðμXi ðeφÞ; μYi ðeT Þ; μΘi ðθÞÞ
(7)
μ0Vi ðvÞ ¼ max δi ; μVi ðvÞ
(8)
3.5. Deffuzifier
The defuzzification is the final step of the FLS. With
this step, the return to the output real values (V0 to
Table 1. Fuzzy control rule table.
θS
eᵠ
P
Figure 6. Fuzzy membership functions of angle θS .
Vi (Sa Sb Sc)
V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7
V0 V1
(000) (100) (110) (010) (011) (001) (101) (111)
Z
1
N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 7. Fuzzy membership functions of output.
7
eT
PL
PS
Z
NS
NL
PL
PS
Z
NS
NL
PL
PS
Z
NS
NL
θ1
V1
V2
V0
V6
V6
V2
V2
V7
V7
V5
V2
V3
V0
V4
V5
θ2
V2
V3
V7
V1
V6
V2
V2
V0
V0
V6
V2
V3
V7
V5
V5
θ3
V2
V3
V7
V1
V1
V3
V3
V0
V0
V6
V3
V4
V7
V5
V6
θ4
V3
V4
V0
V2
V1
V3
V3
V7
V7
V1
V3
V4
V0
V6
V6
θ5
V3
V4
V0
V2
V2
V4
V4
V7
V7
V1
V4
V5
V0
V6
V2
θ6
V4
V5
V7
V3
V2
V4
V4
V0
V0
V2
V4
V5
V7
V1
V2
θ7
V4
V5
V7
V3
V3
V5
V5
V0
V0
V2
V5
V6
V7
V1
V1
θ8
V5
V6
V0
V4
V3
V5
V5
V7
V7
V3
V5
V6
V0
V2
V1
θ9
V5
V6
V0
V4
V4
V6
V6
V7
V7
V3
V6
V2
V0
V2
V3
θ10
V6
V1
V7
V5
V4
V6
V6
V0
V0
V4
V6
V2
V7
V3
V3
θ11
V6
V1
V7
V5
V5
V1
V1
V0
V0
V4
V1
V1
V7
V3
V4
θ12
V1
V2
V0
V6
V5
V1
V1
V7
V7
V5
V1
V1
V0
V4
V4
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
V7) is realized. The membership functions of the
output voltage vectors are illustrated in Figure 7.
The different used defuzzification methods are the
‘centre of gravity method’, which is characterized by
its complexity. Another method named ‘Max method’
is chosen in this paper thanks to its simplicity, which
is given in Equation (9). Utilizing this method, the
maximum value of fuzzy output can be decided and
used as control output.
8
μV 0 output ðVÞ ¼ Maxðμ0Vi ðvÞÞ
i¼1
(9)
The fuzzy logic system is illustrated by the following diagram in Figure 8. The combination between
the inputs generates more than one fuzzy rule.
Each fuzzy rule generates a significant control
action depending on the input variables. Finally,
the defuzzification is applied to determine the control output.
Figure 8. FLS diagram.
Develop algorithm and
System Model
Simulink MDL and XSG
Automatic VHDL
code generation
RTL schematic
Xilinx
Implementation Flow
Bitstream
Download to FPGA
Figure 9. Xilinx system generator design flow.
7
4. Implementation of the FDTC on the FPGA
4.1. Xilinx system generator design flow
The XSG software is the toolbox which was developed by
Xilinx. It could be integrated in a Matlab/Simulink environment where it could let the utilizer create parallel
FPGA systems. These created models could be displayed
as blocks, and linked to other Matlab/Simulink-like
blocks. Once the system was developed from the XSG,
the VHDL code could be generated, and more exactly
reproducing the behaviour noticed in Matlab. The design
flow utilizing the XSG is shown in Figure 9.
4.2. Design of the FDTC from XSG
The hardware implementation on the FPGA of the
FDTC requires the VHDL code and then the
Bitstream file, which can be automatically generated
using the FDTC design from the XSG, as presented
by Figure 9. As shown in Figure 3 the FDTC consists
8
S. KRIM ET AL.
in Figure 2 is used. In this case, we have utilized
a programming Matlab built in the XSG using the
Mcode block.
5. Simulation and implementation results
Figure 10. Design of the fuzzy logic system from the XSG.
of several blocks which are the Concordia transform,
the torque and flux estimators, the flux module, the
θS angle, and the FLS. As shown in Figure 8, the FLS
is based on three inputs and one output. Using the
XSG, the FLS design is illustrated in the following
figure. In this study the hysteresis controllers and the
switching table are replaced by the FLS.
1) Fuzzification step:
The first step of the fuzzy logic system is the fuzzification, which consists in transforming the analog inputs to
fuzzy variables. The error of the stator flux is based on
three fuzzy sets (P, Z, and N), as presented in Figure 4.
The design of this input from the XSG requires the
determination of the mathematical model of each fuzzy
set. For example, the mathematical model of the fuzzy set
ZE is given by the Equation (10). The architecture of the
Equation (10) can be realized using the XSG toolbox.
8
if eφ < F1 then μZE ¼ 0
>
>
>
>
< if eφ < F2 then μ ¼ 0
ZE
(10)
1
<
0
then
μ
if
e
>
φ
ZE ¼ F2 eφ þ 1
>
>
>
: else μ ¼ 1 e þ 1
ZE
F2
φ
The error of the torque is based on five fuzzy sets (PL, PS,
ZE, NS, and NL), as illustrated in Figure 5. The stator flux
position is described by the angle ‘Theta: ϴ’ which is
described by 12 fuzzy sets, as shown in Figure 6. The
design of these inputs from the XSG requires determining the mathematical model of each fuzzy set.
2) Inverter switching states ðSa ; Sb ; Sc Þ:
To determine the inverter switching states form
the selected voltage vector, the relationship presented
(a)
5.1. Simulation results and discussion
The developed models of the basic DTC and the
FDTC approaches are simulated using the XSG. The
stator flux and the electromagnetic torque references
are 0.91 Wb and 10 Nm, respectively. The load torque is proportional to the rotor speed, as given by the
following equation:
Tl ¼ kl Ωr
(13)
with kl ¼ 0:067
The parameters of the IM are presented by the
table below (Table 2).
With Hφ and HTe are the Hysteresis bands of the
stator flux and the electromagnetic errors.
Figure 11 presents the evolution of the stator
flux locus plotted in stationary coordinates (α, β).
Figure 11(a) shows the distortion under gone by
the stator flux vector at each sector transition, for
the basic DTC. When the proposed FDTC is used,
the stator flux vector presents less distortion as
shown by Figure 11(b).
Figure 12 shows the evolution of the electromagnetic torque developed by the basic DTC and the
proposed FDTC. It can be seen that torque reached
quickly it reference value for the both control methods, thanks to the fast dynamic of the DTC. As
shown in Figure 12(a), the torque presents ripples
around its nominal value which is equal 10 Nm.
Table 2. IM parameters.
Number of pairs of poles P = 2
F = 50 Hz
V/U: 220/380 V
Rs = 5,717 Ω
HTe = ± 0.1Nm
Hφ = ± 0.01Wb
(b)
Figure 11. Stator flux locus is plotted in stationary coordinates (α, β): (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
Rr = 4,282 Ω
Ls = 464mH
Lr = 464mH
Msr = 441,7mH
J = 0.0049 kg.m2
f = 0.0029kg.m2/s
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
10
T e m (N m )
T e m (N m )
10
5
5
Time (s)
0
9
0
0.005
0.01
0.015
0
0.02
Time (s)
0
0.005
0.01
(a)
0.015
0.02
(b)
Figure 12. Evolution of electromagnetic torque for: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
These ripples are reduced with the proposed FDTC,
as shown by Figure 12(b).
The stator current, and the letter’s module is
illustrated in Figures 13 and 14, respectively. It can
be noticed that the stator current distortion are
reduced in the case of the proposed FDTC. The
performances of the FDTC relative to the basic
DTC in terms of ripples are archived in Table 3. In
the basic DTC, the switching frequency varies
between 8 and 10 kHz. When the IM is controlled
20
Stator current (A)
S t at or c urrent (A )
20
10
0
-10
10
0
-10
-20
0
-20
2 Time (s) 3
1
5
5
0
-5
0.11
0
2 Time (s)
1
3
0
-5
0.115
0.12
0.125
0.13
0.11
0.115
0.12
(a)
0.125
0.13
(b)
Figure 13. Evolution of the stator current for: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
20
Stator current (A)
Stator current module (A)
20
15
10
5
0
0
2 Time (s) 3
1
15
10
5
0
2 Time (s) 3
1
0
6
5
5
4.5
4
4
3.5
1
1.5
2
3
1
(a)
Figure 14. Evolution of the stator current module in (A) for: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
1.5
(b)
2
10
S. KRIM ET AL.
Table 3. A comparative study between the FDTC and the basic
DTC in terms of ripples.
Basic DTC
Max-Min
Electromagnetic torque ripples
1
Stator flux ripples
0.03
Stator current distortions
0.5
%
9.523
3.333
10.526
Table 4. Resources utilization.
Used
FDTC
Max-Min
0.6
0.02
0.25
%
5.769
2.197
5.882
with the FDTC, the switching frequency is almost
constant and equal to 6 kHz.
5.2. Implementation results and discussion
After completing the design and simulation of the
FDTC from the XSG, the VHDL code is generated,
synthesized and implemented in Xilinx ISE 12.4.
After synthesis, the RTL schematic for the FDTC
algorithm is given as follows (Figure 15).
In this work, the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA with an
xc5vfx70t-3ff1136 package is used. The resources
Figure 15. Synthesis result of FDTC using Xilinx ISE 12.4.
Number
Number
Number
Number
of
of
of
of
bonded IOBs
Slices Registers
Slice LUTs
MULT18X18s
DTC
68
259
1987
16
FDTC
68
866
4655
43
utilization of the basic DTC and the FDTC are
archived in Table 4. This table presents data about
the input/output number, multipliers, flip flops and
slices required for the hardware implementation on
the chosen FPGA.
6. Experimental validation
The proposed control strategy, presented in Figure 3,
has been implemented on the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA
with an xc5vfx70t-3ff1136 package. The experimental
test bench, illustrated in Figure 16, is based on
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
11
Figure 16. Block diagram of the test bench.
a three-phase IM with a squirrel cage, a Semikron
voltage converter, a magnetic powder brake, an electronic board based on two sensors, which are used to
measure the stator current, an electronic board for
analogue-digital conversion of the stator current, and
an inverter interface circuit board to create the dealt
time. Figure 17 presents the used experimental test
bench. The IM parameters are provided in Table 2.
The DC bus voltage is equal to 400 V. The stator flux
and electromagnetic torque references are equal to 0.91
Wb and 10 Nm, respectively. The developed control law
requires only the measuring of the stator currents.
The experimental results have been recorded using
the serial RS232 transmission and plotted utilizing
the MATLAB environment.
The obtained experimental results for the hardware
implementation on the FPGA of the basic DTC and
Figure 17. Real view of the test bench.
the FDTC of an IM are given by Figures 18–21,
respectively.
Figure 18(a,b), illustrate the experimental results of
the real electrical rotor speed in the case of the basic
DTC and the FDTC. It can be seen that the speed
response is very fast thanks to the high dynamic of
the DTC. Moreover, the rotor speed ripples are
reduced with the FDTC.
The experimental results of the stator flux and the
electromagnetic torque are presented by Figures 19
and 20, respectively. It has been noted that the stator
flux and the electromagnetic ripples are reduced
when the IM is controlled by the FDTC approach.
The experimental results of the stator current for
the basic DTC and the FDTC are presented by
Figure 21. The obtained experimental results verify
the effectiveness of the FDTC approach relative to
12
S. KRIM ET AL.
m
(rad/sec)
Estimated Torque
Load Torque
5
200
0
100
-5
0
Tem (Nm)
10
300
0
1
2
x 10
1
2
3
x 10
4
(a)
m
0
3
(a)
10
Tem(Nm)
(rad/sec)
300
4
Estimated Torque
Load Troque
5
200
0
100
-5
0
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
0
0.5
1
x 10
(b)
Figure 20. Experimental results of the estimated electromagnetic torque for the: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
5
Flux (Wb)
Current (A)
0.8
0.92
0.91
0.9
0.4
0
4
2
0
-2
-4
2.53
0
1
0.2
1.2
1.4
4
2.535
x 10
x 10
4
x 10
-5
0
1
2
3
(a)
1
x 10
5
0.8
0.92
0.91
0.9
0.4
1
0.2
0
1.2
0
4
0.5
1.5
1
Current (A)
5
1.4
x 10
0
4
(a)
Flux (Wb)
0.6
2.54
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2.5
4
4
Figure 18. Experimental results: Evolution of the electrical
rotor speed for: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
0.6
2
x 10
(b)
1
1.5
2.5
2
0
-5
1.995
2.5
x 10
2
2.005
4
(b)
Figure 19. Experimental results: Amplitude of the estimated
stator flux for the: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
the basic DTC in terms of ripples. Therefore, the
good functionality of the hardware architecture in
the XSG and then the generation of the VHDL code
are validated. The calculated flux and torque ripples
of the basic DTC and the FDTC have been archived
in Table 5. It is clearly shown that the proposed
FDTC approach is featured by good performances
relative to the basic DTC by reducing the flux and
torque ripples.
Table 6 presents a comparative study between the
proposed FDTC and others existing schemes using
two criteria such as: possibility of controller design
and complexity of implementation and tuning.
Referring to the simulation and the experimental
results, it can be seen that the FDTC provides better
2.01
4
x 10
-5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
x 10
4
(b)
Figure 21. Experimental results of the stator current (isα) for
the: (a) basic DTC, (b) FDTC.
Table 5. Torque and flux ripples for the basic DTC and DTFC.
Stator flux magnitude (Wb)
Electromagnetic torque (N.m)
Conventional DTC
FDTC
Max-Min
0.02
1.6
Max-Min
0.01
0.85
results in terms of ripples, compared to the conventional DTC. The four DTC approaches presented in
Table 6 offer similar performances in terms of
dynamic. However, the implementation and tuning
of the FDTC is sampler compared with the DTC-
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
13
Table 6. Comparative study between the proposed FDTC and others existing schemes.
Conventional DTC
Low
Low
Complexity of implementation and tuning
Possibility of controller design
SVM-PI and the DTC-SVM-SMC [7], due to the difficulty of the adequate choice of the gains parameters of
the Proportional-Integral (PI) and sliding mode controllers, in addition the proposed FDTC is a sensorless
control strategy which consequently reduces the inputs
number and the system cost. The DTC-SVM-PI and
the DTC-SVM-SMC [7] are based on two PI controllers and two sliding mode controllers, respectively.
These controllers are difficult in design, which made
the FDTC easier to implement and to design.
During the hardware FPGA implementation of the
FDTC architecture, the obtained execution time is
archived in Table 7.
The computing time TFDTC of the FDTC approach is
equal to 0.73μs. The analogue to digital conversion time
tADC is equal to 2.2μs, using the analogue to digital
converter ADS 8509. To determine the total execution
time it is necessary to add the tADC time to the TFDTC.
Finally, the total execution time of the FDTC is
equal to 2.93 µs. The sampling period is equal to
50µs which is very big relative to the execution time.
This is due to the high computation speed of the
FPGAs thanks to their parallel processing. To get
a control with high performances, it is desired to
choose a very low sampling period, but in our case
we are limited by the used inverter which requires
a sampling period not less than 50µs.
Table 7. Performance of the FPGA in terms of computing time.
Module
Cycles
Acquisition of ADC values
36
+ Conversion time
Concordia transformation
6
Stator Flux and Torque
15
Estimator
Sector calculation
32
Fuzzy logic control
20
Tex ¼ 2:2 þ 0:06 þ 0:15 þ 0:32 þ 0:2 ¼ 2:93μs
Execution time (µs)
2.2
0.06
0.15
0.32
0.2
DTC-SVM-PI [7]
High
High
DTC-SVM-SMC [7]
High
High
FDTC
Low
Medium
For more information about the FPGA in terms of
processing speed, a comparative study relative to the dSP
is presented and illustrated by Figure 22. Referring to the
paper of [61], the estimated computation time is equal to
50 µs with a sampling period equal to 60µs using the DSP
(dSPACE 1104 based on DSPTMS320F240). Paper of
[54] presents an experimental implementation on
a DSP of a DTC approach with a sampling period
equal to 100µs. Using the DSP, the execution time is
much higher to that obtained by a Xilinx FPGA which
can execute the FDTC with 5µs.
The obtained experimental results are similar to
those obtained in theory; which confirms the good
performances of the IM controlled by an FDTC
approach, implemented on a Xilinx FPGA. The high
processing speed of the FPGA offers a control with
good performances, overcoming the DSP limitations
mentioned in [76], essentially, the execution time
which must reduced. In paper [60] the execution
time influence is demonstrated; with an execution
time equal to 6.5µs the stator current THD is equal
to 8%. This rate is increased to 21% with an execution
time equal to 50µs.
To sum up, the flux and torque hysteresis bands are
the only gains to be adjusted in conventional DTC. The
inverter switching frequency and the current waveform
are greatly influenced by them. Therefore, the magnitude
of the hysteresis band should be determined based on
reasonable guidelines which can avoid excessive inverter
switching frequency and current harmonics in the whole
operating region. However, in the proposed FDTC the
hysteresis controllers are replaced by a fuzzy logic system
and applied to an IM with power equal to 1.5kW. The
membership functions are depending on the parameters
F1, F2, T1, and T2. These parameters can be chosen by the
experience of the designer and optimized by simulations
under different conditions of speed and torque. For
(a)
k
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
k+1 Time (µs)
k
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
k+1 Time (µs)
(b)
: A/D Conversion.
: The execution time.
Figure 22. Diagram of sequential timing for: (a) Xilinx FPGA Virtex 5, (b) DSP (e.g. dSPACE 1104. . .).
14
S. KRIM ET AL.
others induction motors with high powers, the FDTC
can be tuned by the parameters F1, F2, T1, and T2.
7. Conclusion
This paper presents a hardware implementation of the
FDTC approach on the FPGA. The intelligent technique
based on the fuzzy logic has been put forward to overcome the basic DTC limitations, like the stator flux and
the torque ripples, as well as the harmonic stator current
waves. In the FDTC approach, the switching table and the
hysteresis controllers used in the basic DTC have been
replaced by a fuzzy logic system. The hardware FPGA
implementation of the proposed approach, has been
developed, designed and simulated using the XSG tool.
The VHDL code and the bitstream file have been automatically generated.
The obtained simulation results have shown that the
FDTC control strategy has better performances relative
to the basic DTC. Actually, in the suggested control
strategy, the flux and the torque ripples are significantly
reduced. This is due to the fact that when using the fuzzy
logic system, the selected voltage vector is more convenient. It has been shown experimentally that the proposed FDTC offers satisfactory results in terms of torque
and flux ripples. The FPGA performance in terms of
computation speed has been presented and discussed.
Abdellatif Mtibaa is currently Professor
in Micro-Electronics and Hardware
Design with Electrical Department at the
National School of Engineering of
Monastir and Head of Circuits Systems
Reconfigurable
ENIM-Group
at
Electronic
and
microelectronic
Laboratory. He holds a Diploma in
Electrical Engineering in 1985 and
received his PhD degree in Electrical Engineering in 2000. His
current research interests include System on Programmable
Chip, high level synthesis, rapid prototyping and reconfigurable
architecture for real-time multimedia applications.
Dr. Abdellatif Mtibaa has authored/coauthored over 150 papers
in international journals and conferences. He served on the
technical program committees for several international conferences. He also served as a co-organizer of several international
conferences. E-mail: [email protected]
Mohamed Faouzi Mimouni received
his Mastery of Science and DEA from
ENSET, Tunisia in 1984 and 1986,
respectively. In 1997, he obtained his
Doctorate Degree in Electrical
Engineering from ENSET, Tunisia.
He is currently Full Professor of
Electrical Engineering with Electrical
Department at the National School of
Engineering of Monastir. His specific research interests are
in the area Power Electronics, Motor Drives, Solar and
Wind Power generation. Dr. Med Faouzi MIMOUNI has
authored/coauthored over 100 papers in international journals and conferences. He served on the technical program
committees for several international conferences. E-mail:
[email protected]
Disclosure statement
No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
References
Notes on contributors
Saber Krim received the Electrical
Engineering Diploma, the Master, and
the Ph.D. degrees in 2011, 2013, and
2017, respectively, all in electrical engineering from the National Engineering
School of Monastir, University of
Monastir, Tunisia. He is a member of
the Research Unit of Industrial Systems
study
and
Renewable
Energy,
University of Monastir. His current research interests
include rapid prototyping and reconfigurable architecture
for real-time control applications of electrical systems.
E-mail: [email protected]
Soufien Gdaim received the degree in
Electrical Engineering from National
School of Engineering of Sfax, Tunisia
in 1998. In 2007 he received his M.S
degree in electronic and real-time informatic from Sousse University and
received his PhD degree in Electrical
Engineering in 2013 from ENIM,
Tunisia. His current research interests
include rapid prototyping and reconfigurable architecture
for real-time control applications of electrical systems.
E-mail: [email protected]
[1] Parekh R. AC induction motor fundamentals.
Microchip Technology Inc. 2003;AN887(DS00887A):
1–24.
[2] Takahashi I, Noguchi T. A new quick-response and
high-efficiency control strategy of an induction motor.
IEEE Trans Sustain Energy. 1986;IA-22:820–827.
[3] Habetler TG, Profumo F, Pastorelli M, et al. Direct
torque control of induction machines using space
vector modulation. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy.
1992;28:1045–1053.
[4] Khoucha F, Lagoun SM, Marouani K, et al. Hybrid
cascaded H-bridge multilevel-inverter inductionmotor-drive direct torque control for automotive
applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron. 2010;57:
892–899.
[5] Reza C, Islam MD, Mekhilef S. A review of reliable
and energy efficient direct torque controlled induction motor drives. Renew Sust Energ Rev.
2014;37:919–932.
[6] Kyo-Beum L, Blaabjerg F. Sensorless DTC-SVM for
induction motor driven by a matrix converter using
a parameter estimation strategy. IEEE Trans Ind
Electron. 2008;55:512–521.
[7] Saber K, Gdaim S, Mtibaa A, et al. Implementation on
the FPGA of DTC-SVM based proportional integral and
sliding mode controllers of an induction motor:
a comparative study. J Circuit Syst Comp. 2017;26
(3):1–32.
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
[8] Krim S, Gdaim S, Mtibaa A, et al. Real time implementation of high performance’s direct torque control of induction motor on FPGA. Int Rev Elect Eng.
2014;9(5):919–929.
[9] Wang Y, Li H, Shi X. Direct torque control with space
vector modulation for induction motors fed by cascaded
multilevel inverters. In: 32nd IEEE Annual Conference
on Industrial Electronics IECON; 2006 Nov 6–10; Paris,
France; p. 1575–1579.
[10] Casadei D, Sera G, Tani K. Implementation of
a direct torque control algorithm for induction
motors based on discrete space vector modulation.
IEEE Trans Power Electron. 2000;15(4):769–777.
[11] Habetler G, Profumo F, Pastorclli M, et al. Direct
torque control of induction motors using space vector modulation. IEEE Trans Ind Appl. 1992;28
(September/October (5)):1045–1053.
[12] Krim S, Gdaim S, Mtibaa A, et al. FPGA implementation of the direct torque control with constant
switching frequency of induction motor. In: IEEE
12th International Multi-Conference on Systems,
Signals & Devices (SSD2015); Tunisia: Mahdia; 2015.
[13] Martins CA, Roboam X, Meynard TA, et al.
Switching frequency imposition and ripple reduction
in DTC drives by using a multilevel converter. IEEE
Trans Power Electron. 2002;17:286–297.
[14] Didarul Islam M, Reza C, Mekhilef S. Modeling and
experimental validation of 5-level hybrid H-bridge
multilevel inverter fed DTC-IM drive. J Elect Eng
Technol. 2015;10(2):574–585.
[15] Rodriguez J, Pontt J, Kouro S, et al. Direct torque
control with imposed switching frequency and torque ripple minimization in an 11-level cascaded
inverter. In: IEEE 34th Annual Power Electronics
Specialist Conference, vol. 2; 2003 June 15–19;
PESC’03; Acapulco, Mexico; 2003; p. 501–506.
[16] Kouro S, Bernal R, Miranda H, et al. Highperformance torque and flux control for multilevel
inverter Fed induction motors. IEEE Trans Power
Electron. 2007;22:2116–2123.
[17] Messaif I, E-M B, Saadia N. Ripple reduction in DTC
drives by using a three-level NPC VSI. In: 14th IEEE
International Conference on Electronics, Circuits
and Systems ICECS; IEEE; 2007 Dec 11–14,
Marrakech, Morocco; p. 1179–1182.
[18] Zaimeddine R, Undeland T. DTC control schemes for
induction motor fed by three-level NPC-VSI using space
vector modulation. In: 2010 International Symposium
on Power Electronics Electrical Drives Automation and
Motion (SPEEDAM); IEEE; 2010 Jun 14–16, Pisa, Italy;
p. 966–971.
[19] Escalante MF, Vannier JC, Arzande XA. Flying capacitor multilevel inverters and DTC motor drive
applications. IEEE Trans Ind Electron. 2002;49:809–815.
[20] Gholinezhad J, Noroozian R. Application of cascaded
H-bridge multilevel inverter in DTC-SVM based induction motor drive. In: Power Electronics and Drive
Systems Technology (PEDSTC); 3rd: IEEE; 2012 Feb
15–16, Tehran, Iran; p. 127–132.
[21] Uddin M, Mekhilef S, Mubin M, et al. Model predictive torque ripple reduction with weighting factor
optimization fed by an indirect matrix converter.
Electr Pow Compo Sys. 2014;42:1059–1069.
[22] Fu H, Chen Y, Tian G, et al. Sliding mode-based
DTC-SVM control of permanent magnet synchronous motors for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles.
Int J Power Electron. 2011;3(6):578–596.
15
[23] Ahammad T, Beig AR, Al-Hosani K. An improved
direct torque control of induction motor with modified sliding mode control approach. In: Electric
Machines & Drives Conference (IEMDC), 2013;
IEEE International. IEEE; 2013 May 12–15,
Chicago, IL; p. 166–171.
[24] Barrero F, Gonzalez A, Torralba A, et al. Speed control
of induction motors using a novel fuzzy sliding-mode
structure. IEEE Trans Fuzzy Syst. 2002;10(3):375–383.
[25] Gadoue SM, Giaouris D, Finch JW. Artificial intelligence based speed control of DTC induction motor
drive—a comparative study. J Electron Power Res.
2009;79(1):210–219.
[26] Wu X, Huang L. Direct torque control of
three-level inverter using neural networks as
switching vector selector. IEEE Conf Rec Ind
Appl. 2001;2:939–944.
[27] Kaboli S, Zolgbadri MR, Emadi A. Hysteresis band
determination of direct torque controlled induction
motor drives with torque ripple and motor-inverter
loss considerations. IEEE 34th annual, power electronics specialist conference (PESC'03); 2003 Jun 1519, Acapulco, Mexico; p. 1107–1111.
[28] Sanila CM. Direct torque control of induction motor
with constant switching frequency. 2012 IEEE
International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives
and Energy Systems; 2012 Dec 16–19; Bengaluru: India.
[29] Mohanty KB. A direct torque controlled induction
motor with variable hysteresis band. IEEE 11th
International Conference on Computer Modelling
and Simulation; 2009 Mar 25–27, Cambridge, UK;
p. 405–4010.
[30] Idris NRN, Yatim AHM. Direct torque control of
induction machines with constant switching frequency and reduced torque ripple. IEEE Trans Ind
Electron. 2004 August;51(4):758–767.
[31] Kang J-W, Sul SK. Analysis and prediction of inverter switching frequency in direct torque control of
induction machine based on hysteresis bands and
machine parameters. IEEE Trans Ind Electron.
2001 June;48:545–553.
[32] Casadei D, Grandi G, Serra G, et al. Effects of flux
and torque hysteresis band amplitude in direct torque control of induction machines. IEEE IECON.
1994;1: 299–304. in Proc.
[33] Sheidaei F, Sedighizadeh M, Mohseni-Zonoozi SH, et al.
A fuzzy logic direct torque control for induction motor
sensorless drive. In: Universities Power Engineering
Conference, 2007. UPEC 2007; 42nd International
IEEE; 2007 Sep 4–6, Brighton, UK; p. 197–202.
[34] Mir SE, Elbuluk ME. Precision torque control in
inverter-fed induction machines using fuzzy logic. In:
Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 1995.
PESC’95 Record., 26th Annual IEEE. IEEE; 1995 Jun
18–22, Atlanta, GA; p. 396–401.
[35] Youb L, Craciunescu A. Direct torque control of
induction motors with fuzzy minimization torque
ripple. In: Proceedings of the World Congress on
Engineering and Computer Science 2009 Vol II
WCECS 2009; Oct 20–22; San Francisco, USA; 2009.
[36] Zidani F, Said RN. Direct torque control of induction motor with fuzzy minimization torque ripple.
J Elect Eng. 2005;56(7–8):183–188.
[37] Lokriti A, Salhi I, Doubabi S, et al. Induction motor
speed drive improvement using fuzzy IP-self-tuning
controller. A real time implementation. ISA Trans.
2013;52(2):406–417.
16
S. KRIM ET AL.
[38] Adam AA, Gulez K, Erdogan N. Minimum torque ripple
algorithm with fuzzy logic controller for DTC of PMSM.
International Conference on Intelligent Computing,
2007: Advanced Intelligent Computing Theories and
Applications. With Aspects of Theoretical and
Methodological Issues;2007, Berlin, Heidelberg:
Springer; p. 511–521.
[39] Romeral L, Arias A, Aldabas E, et al. Novel direct
torque control (DTC) scheme with fuzzy adaptive
torque-ripple reduction. IEEE Trans Ind Electron.
2003 June;50(3):487–492.
[40] Liu J, Wu P, Xiping H. Application of fuzzy control in
direct torque control of permanent magnet synchronous
motor. Proceeding of 5th world congress on intelligent
Control and automation; Hangzhou, China; June 2004.
[41] Bacha F, Dhifaoui R, Buyse H. Real-time implementation of direct torque control of an induction
machine by fuzzy logic controller. Int Conf Elect
Mach Syst (ICEMS). 2001;2:1244–1249.
[42] Sudheer H, Kodad SF, Sarvesh B. Improvements in
direct torque control of induction motor for wide
range of speed operation using fuzzy logic. J Elect Syst
Inform Technol. 2017. DOI:10.1016/j.jesit.2016.12.015,
[43] Karpe S, Deokar SA, Dixit AM. Switching losses minimization by using direct torque control of induction
motor. Journal of Electrical Systems and Information
Technology. 2017. DOI:10.1016/j.jesit.2016.08.007,
[44] Ibrahim Z, Levi E. An experimental investigation of
fuzzy logic speed control in permanent magnet synchronous motor drives. EPE Journal. 2002;12(2).
[45] Betin F, Deloizy M, Goeldel: C. Closed loop control
of a stepping motor drive: comparison between PID
control, self tuning regulation and fuzzy logic
control. EPE Journal. 1999;8(1–2):33–39.
[46] Krim S, Gdaim S, Mtibaa A, et al. Fuzzy speed
controller for an induction motor associated with
the direct torque control: implementation on the
FPGA. IEEE Proceedings of the 4th International
Conference on Systems and Control (ICSC2015);
April 28–30; Sousse, Tunisia; 2015.
[47] Berthereau F, Robyns B, Hautier JP. Fuzzy logic
based gains determination of induction motor flux
observers. EPE Journal. 2002;12(2):1–12.
[48] Adam AA, Gulez K, Erdogan N. Minimum torque
ripple algorithm with fuzzy logic controller for DTC of
PMSM. In: International Conference on Intelligent
Computing; Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007. p.
511–521.
[49] Karpe S, Deokar SA, Dixit AM. Switching losses minimization by using direct torque control of induction
motor. J Elect Syst Inform Tech. 2017;4(1):225–242.
[50] Haghi HV, Eskandari B, Pashajavid E, et al. An experimental examination of a fuzzy logic-based DTC scheme.
In: Power Electronics: Drive Systems and Technologies
Conference (PEDSTC); 2011 2nd IEEE; 2011 Feb 16–17,
Tehran, Iran; p. 251–255.
[51] Motor control with STM32®32-bit ARM®-based
MCU. Pdf. STMicroelectronics- 2011 Dec, UK; p.
1–8. Available from: http://www.st.com/web/en/
resource/sales_and_marketing/promotional_mate
rial/brochure/brstm32mc.pdf
[52] STM32 embedded target for MATLAB and
Simulink; [cited 2014 Dec]. Available from: http://
www.st.com/resource/en/data_brief/stm32-mat-slshtarget.pdf
[53] Ozcira S, Bekiroglu N, Senol I. Dynamic performance
and analysis of direct torque control method based on
[54]
[55]
[56]
[57]
[58]
[59]
[60]
[61]
[62]
[63]
[64]
[65]
[66]
[67]
[68]
[69]
DSP for PMSM drives. IEEE International Conference
on Renewable Energy Research and Applications;
2012 Nov 11–14, Nagasaki, Japan. DOI:10.1109/
ICRERA.2012.6477342
Lianbing L, Sun H, Wang X, et al. A
high-performance direct torque control based on
DSP in permanent magnet synchronous motor
drive. Proc. 4th World Congress Intell Control
Automat. 2002;2:1622–1625.
Cruz SMA, Toliyat HA, Cardoso AM. DSP implementation of the multiple reference frames theory for the
diagnosis of stator faults in a DTC induction motor
drive. IEEE Trans Energy Convers. 2005;20:329–335.
Singh B, Singh BP, Dwivedi S. DSP Based
Implementation of Sliding Mode Speed Controller
for Direct Torque Controlled PMSM Drive. IEEE
International Conference on Industrial Technology;
Dec 15–17; 2006, Mumbai, India; p. 1301–1308.
Monmasson E, Cirstea MN. FPGA design methodology for industrial control systems—a review. IEEE
Trans Ind Electron. 2007;54(4):1824–1842.
Cecati C. Microprocessors for power electronics and
electrical drives applications. IEEE Ind Electron Soc
Newslett. 1999 Sep;46(3):5–9.
Hussein F, Malik E. Improving the torque ripple in
DTC of PMSM using fuzzy logic. Industry
Applications Society Annual Meeting; 2008 Oct
5–9; IAS ‘08. IEEE; Edmonton, AB. DOI:10.1109/
08IAS.2008.162
Idkhajine L, Monmasson E, Naouar MW, et al.
Fully integrated FPGA-Based controller for synchronous motor drive. IEEE Trans Ind Electron.
2009;56(10):4006–4017.
Lokriti A, IssamSalhi SD. IM direct torque control
with no flux distortion and no static torque error.
ISA Trans. 2015;59:256–267.
Idris NRN, Chuen LT, Elbuluk ME. A new torque
and flux controller for direct torque control of
induction machines. IEEE Trans Ind Appl. 2006
Nov–Dec;42(6):1358–1366.
Jidin A, Idris NRN, Yatim AHM, et al. An optimized switching strategy for quick dynamic torque
control
in
DTC-hysteresis-based
induction
machines. IEEE Trans Ind Electron. 2011 Aug;58
(8):3391–3400.
Tabbache B, Benbouzid M, Kheloui A, et al. An
improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM
inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs. ISA Trans.
2013;52:862–869.
Rafa S, Larabi A, Barazane L, et al. Implementation
of a new fuzzy vector control of induction motor.
ISA Trans. 2014;52:744–754.
Shahbazi M, Poure P, Saadate S, et al. FPGA-based
reconfigurable control for fault-tolerant back-to-back
converter without redundancy. IEEE Trans Ind
Electron. 2013 August;60(8):3360–3371.
Jezernik K, Korelic J, Horvat R. PMSM sliding mode
FPGA-Based control for torque ripple reduction.
IEEE Trans Power Electron. 2013 July;28(7):3549–
3556.
Sutikno T, Idris NR, Jidin A, et al. An improved
FPGA implementation of direct torque control for
induction machines. IEEE Trans Ind Inform. 2013
August;9(3):1280–1290.
Moctezuma JC, Sanchez S, Alvarez R, et al. (2008)
Architecture for filtering images using Xilinx system
generator. CEA’08 Proceedings of the 2nd WSEAS
JOURNAL: EUROPEAN POWER ELECTRONICS AND DRIVES
International Conference on Computer Engineering
and Applications, World Scientific and Engineering
Academy and Society (WSEAS); 2008 Jun 25–27,
Acapulco, Mexico; p. 284–289.
[70] Saidani T, Atri M, Dia D, et al. Using Xilinx system
generator for real time hardware co-simulation of
video processing system. Electron Eng Comput
Technol. 2010;60:227–236.
[71] Xilinx System Generator User’s Guide. UG640
(v11.4); [cited 2009 Dec 2]. Available from: http://
www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/sw_man
uals/xilinx11/sysgen_user.pdf
[72] Bendaas I, Naceri F, Belkacem S. Improving asynchronous motor speed and flux loop control by using
hybrid Fuzzy-SMC controllers. Int J Autom Comput.
2014;11(4):361–367.
17
[73] Masiala M, Vafakhah B, Salmon J, et al. Fuzzy
self-tuning speed control of an indirect
field-oriented control induction motor drive. IEEE
Trans
Sustain
Energy.
2008
November/
December;44(6):1732–1740.
[74] Fnaiech MA, Betin F, Capolino GA, et al. Slidingmode controls applied to six-phase induction
machine with open phases. IEEE Trans Ind Electron.
2010 January;57(1):354–364.
[75] Nasir Uddin M, Radwan TS, Rahman MA.
Performances of fuzzy-logic-based indirect vector control for induction motor drive. IEEE Trans Sustain
Energy. 2002 September/October;38(5):1219–1225.
[76] Monmasson E, Idkhajine L, Marcian N, et al. FPGAs
in industrial control applications. IEEE Trans Ind
Inform. 2011;7(2):224–243.
Téléchargement
Explore flashcards