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AlthoughBut

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although, but, however
All of these words join clauses in
sentences, but they are different
parts of speech.
This presentation explains the impact
of the word choice on sentence
pattern and punctuation.
although, but, however
Semantic similarity
These three words are related
semantically (in meaning):
they all signal a contrast in the
information that follows with the
information that precedes.
For use with Technical Editing 3e
2
although, but, however
Structural difference
However, these words differ
structurally: they are different parts
of speech and affect sentence patterns
in different ways.
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3
Semantic similarity
Structural difference
An editor needs to know the
structural difference in order to
punctuate sentences correctly.
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4
although, but, however
sentence patterns and
punctuation
 Punctuation errors can result from
using the words as
interchangeable.
 Misreading can result from errors.
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5
parts of speech
word
part of speech effect on sentence
although
subordinating makes clause
conjunction
dependent
but
coordinating
conjunction
however
conjunctive
adverb
joins like things
(2 independent
clauses)
modifies an
independent clause
For use with Technical Editing 3e
6
sentence analysis
Compound sentence, coordinating
conjunction
I have studied the textbook, but
I am still confused.
 coordinating conjunction (“but”)
 two independent clauses (“I have
studied” and “I am”)
 compound sentence: comma separates
clauses with a coordinating conjunction
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7
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction
Although I have studied the
textbook, I am still confused.




two clauses (2 pairs of subject + verb)
subordinating conjunction (“although”)
dependent clause
complex sentence: comma after the
introductory clause
For use with Technical Editing 3e
8
sentence analysis
Complex sentence, subordinating
conjunction
I have studied the textbook;
however, I am still confused.
 conjunctive adverb (joins clauses but
does not affect sentence pattern)
 two independent clauses
 compound sentence, no coordinating
conjunction-->semicolon
For use with Technical Editing 3e
9
sentence analysis
Two simple sentences, “however” as
adverb in one
I am confused.
I have, however, studied the
textbook.
“however” is an adverb
two simple sentences
the adverb is interrupting material
that requires a pair of commas
For use with Technical Editing 3e
10
Review
although, but, however
 Parts of speech affect sentence patterns.
 Although, but, and however are different
parts of speech.
 although--subordinating conjunction
 but--coordinating conjunction
 however--conjunctive adverb
For use with Technical Editing 3e
11
Review: sentence types
compound sentence =
two independent clauses
 join with comma plus coordinating conjunction
 join with a semicolon
complex sentence =
one independent clause,
one dependent clause
 join with a comma or nothing (never a
semicolon)
For use with Technical Editing 3e
12
Review
although, but, however
 Although makes a clause dependent
and the sentence complex.
 But joins independent clauses in a
compound sentence.
 However can join independent
clauses but does not change their
independence.
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13
Editing:
original sentence (punctuation
error)
 When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly; although it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.
For use with Technical Editing 3e
14
Editing:
analysis
When editors analyze
sentence structure,
dependent clause
(“when” is a
subordinating
conjunction)
they punctuate correctly
independent
clause (S+V)
although it is easy to
confuse different parts of
speech.
dependent clause
(S+V +
subordinating
conjunction)
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15
Option #1 for punctuation
Delete the semicolon (or replace it with a
comma): maintain complex sentence
When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly although it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.
For use with Technical Editing 3e
16
Option #2 for punctuation
Replace although with however and retain
the semicolon: create a compoundcomplex sentence (includes 2 independent
clauses)
When editors analyze sentence
structure, they punctuate
correctly; however, it is easy to
confuse different parts of speech.
For use with Technical Editing 3e
17
Choosing an option
In this case, the second option is
probably better.
The sentence is long and difficult.
Subordination and lack of punctuation
increase reading difficulty. Coordination
creates parallel structure, which aids
comparison.
For use with Technical Editing 3e
18
although, but, however
 know parts of speech
 know the ways these words affect
clauses
 punctuate according to structure
For use with Technical Editing 3e
19
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