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MATPR 9999
No. of Pages 7, Model 5G
8 August 2019
Materials Today: Proceedings xxx (xxxx) xxx
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Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Materials Today: Proceedings
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/matpr
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4 Q1
A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC
algorithm
7 Q2
O. Oussalem ⇑, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy, M. Ajaamoum, H. Idadoub, S. Jenkal
8 Q3
LASIME (Engineering Science and Energy Management Laboratory) ENSA, Agadir, Morocco
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i n f o
Article history:
Received 4 June 2019
Received in revised form 20 July 2019
Accepted 24 July 2019
Available online xxxx
Keywords:
PV
MPPT
Arduino
Incremental conductance (INC)
Matlab-Simulink
a b s t r a c t
Photovoltaic (PV) systems offer a very competitive solution as an alternative energy source, but they have
a low efficiency. To overcome the problem of solar panel performance and achieve maximum efficiency, it
is necessary to optimize the design of all parts of the PV photovoltaic chain. Then we insert a stage of
adaptation between the photovoltaic generator (GPV) and the load. This stage which is controlled by a
microcontroller, will allow the system to search and reach the maximum power point (MPP). This algorithm is among of other ones which are widely used in PV systems for their easy implementation as well
as their low cost. This algorithm was analyzed and its performance was evaluated by using the Arduino
board via Matlab-Simulink tool.
Ó 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International
Conference on Plasma and Energy Materials ICPEM2019.
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1. Introduction
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In line with, its energy strategy which aims to achieve energy
independence, Morocco has accorded high priority to convert to
the renewable energies and especially solar thermal and photovoltaic energy [1].
Photovoltaic energy is a solution for the production of renewable energy based on a photovoltaic generator (GPV) from the solar
flux. In its operation a GPV has non-linear characteristics, which
depend among other things on the illumination, the temperature
of the cell and also on the characteristics of the charge. An adaptive
stage is inserted between the GPV and the load. This stage allows
driving the system to the maximum power point (MPP).
The aim of this work is the design and realization for the control
of different parties of a photovoltaic system by low cost board
(Arduino board) via the Matlab-Simulink software. The PV system
is customized by an ‘‘incremental” strategy which is a type of MPPT
algorithms that will ensure the achievement of the maximum
power provided by the PV module [2,3].
Various results are presented in this article in order to validate
this control platform as being the most cost-effective and efficient
for the optimization of the photovoltaic chain.
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⇑ Corresponding author.
E-mail address: [email protected] (O. Oussalem).
This article is divided into five parts: After the introduction, the
second part gives a general description of a photovoltaic system.
The third part deals with the interface based on the Arduino board
under the Matlab-Simulink environment. The fourth one will be
dedicated to the experimental results of the system studied.
Finally, this study finishes with a conclusion.
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2. Photovoltaic system
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The photovoltaic system under study consists of four blocks as
shown in Fig. 1. The first block represents the photovoltaic emulator, the second block is the static converter DC-DC Buck-Boost, the
third block represents the DC load and the fourth one is the system
controller.
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2.1. PV emulator
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The PV panels are depends on climatic conditions, that’s why
we chose to employ a PV emulator.
This PV emulator is an electronic power system able to reproduce the characteristics of the solar panel, and which has the following characteristics [4]:
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It consists of three independent blocks emulating solar panels;
Voltage of open circuit is 20 V;
Short-circuit current up to 2 A;
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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
2214-7853/Ó 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the International Conference on Plasma and Energy Materials ICPEM2019.
Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
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Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of PV system with MPPT.
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Displays voltage and current variables on integrated displays for
each of the three blocks;
Simulation adjustable intensities of solar irradiation, each of the
three blocks.
Fig. 3. The characteristic I (V) of the PV emulator for G = 400 w/m2.
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For an irradiation of 400 W/m2, the characteristics (I–V) and (P–
V) of the photovoltaic emulator are illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3.
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2.2. Static converter
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The main role of the Buck-Boost power converter is to ensure
impedance matching, so that the output of the PV emulator delivers the maximum energy.
The electronic circuit corresponding to the Buck-Boost realized
(Fig. 4), is essentially based around the power MOSFET transistor,
type IRF730, driven by the Arduino control board via a driver, as
well as a diode, and passive components (L, C) ensuring the
smoothing and filtering of the current electric [5].
The main variables characterizing the Buck-Boost converter
[5,6] are:
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The output voltage is : V s ¼
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The output current is : Is ¼
a
1a
1a
a
Ve
Ie
Fig. 4. Circuit of Buck-Boost converter.
ð1Þ
The current ripple : DIL ¼
ð2Þ
The voltage ripple : DV C ¼
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aV e
ð3Þ
Lf
aIs
Cf
¼
a2 V e
ð1 aÞRCf
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ð4Þ
With:
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a: The duty cycle of the PWM signal or PWM.
f: The frequency of the PWM signal.
VC: voltage across the capacitor.
IL: current through the coil.
R: resistive load.
L and C: inductor and capacitor constituting the filter. The filter
values are: L 0.9 mH and C 27 mF.
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Fig. 2. The characteristic P (V) of the PV emulator for G = 400 W/m2.
2.3. PWM generator
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There are a lot of generators of PWM signal, the used one is
based on the TL494 component. This is an integrated circuit of
pulse width modulation control for fixed frequency signals. The
circuit accompanying the TL494 component is described in the
electrical schema of Fig. 5 [7].
This generator can operate at frequencies up to 400 kHz.
According to technical documents of TL494 builder, the approximate oscillation frequency is determined by [7]:
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1:1
fc ¼
Rt C t
ð5Þ
Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
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Fig. 5. PWM generator based on the TL494 circuit.
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The duty cycle of the PWM signal is controlled by a voltage that
varies from 0 V to 2.5 V. The Mosfet used must be controlled by a
PWM signal greater than 7 V, for that reason, a driver was realized
for amplifying the signal of the PWM generator.
To follow the MPP, the platform needs two sensors: current and
voltage sensor. The voltage measurement is performed from a voltage divider to have a voltage between 0 and 5 V. The output of this
divider drives a follower amplifier realized by the circuit ‘‘LM324”
to the impedance matching. However the current measurement is
done by a shunt resistor of 1 X.
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3. MPPT strategy and support package for Arduino board
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The strategy of maximizing the power from a photovoltaic
source is to seek the optimum operating point. This technique is
called: the MPPT strategy.
There are several types of MPPT strategies, among which is the
incremental conductance (INC) command, which this technique is
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based on the knowledge of the GPV Conductor Variation and Position Consequences operation in relation to a MPP [8].
Fig. 6 shows that the maximum power can then be tracked
by making comparisons to each moment of the value of the conductance (Ipv/Vpv) with that of the increment ofConductance
(DIpv/DVpv). Vr corresponds to the reference voltage and forces
the GPV to operate at this value. If you are at the PPM, then the
voltage Vr corresponds well to the optimum voltage Vopt. Once
the PPM is reached, the operation can be maintained on this
position until a variation of DIpv. This then indicates a change
in climatic conditions, so a new MPCs search. For this, the algorithm increments or decrements the value of Vr up to reach the
MPP [9].
Matlab (Matrix laboratory) is a fourth-generation programming
language, developed by MathWorks. Matlab has provided a tool
books for Arduino called the support package, which includes a
Simulink block library to configure and access the sensors, actuators and Arduino communication interfaces [2,3].
Fig. 6. Conventional flow chart of the MPPT control type ‘incremental conductance’.
Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
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This developed configuration (Fig. 7) is for the treaty system,
based on the Simulink environment.
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4. Experimental result
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The experimental realization of the photovoltaic system under
study, as shown in the Fig. 8, is composed of a PV emulator, a
Buck-Boost chopper, sensors of Ipv (PV emulator current) and
Vpv (PV emulator voltage), a resistive load, and an Arduino Mega
board.
The experimental test of the studied system should start by
attacking the Arduino board, by the program of the ‘incremental
conductance’ strategy treated previously.
It is noted that during the experimental process, some adaptations and calibrations were made between the various variables
treated in the photovoltaic system. Thus the system can search
for and converge towards the point of maximum power.
The PV emulator offers the possibility to choose the G value of
the irradiation by selecting one of the two values 400 and
600 W/m2, in order to see the influence of the ‘incremental conductance’ strategy on the PV emulator’s output power (Ppv).
Fig. 9 describes the evolution of the PV emulator’s output power
for the irradiation G = 400 W/m2.
Those figures illustrate the curves of the PV emulator’s output
power Ppv as a function of the time and of the voltage Vpv. These
curves are processed in order to show that the photovoltaic system
realized was able to seek and follow the power supplied and to
reach the output power around the maximum power point (MPP)
at around 13 W for an irradiation of G = 400 w/m2.
It is also remarkable in Fig. 10, that the system following its
curves of the PV emulator’s output power in function of the voltage
and of the time, behaves by the same way in a second test for irradiation G = 600 w/m2. So it was able to reach the output power
around its new maximum power point (around of 16 W).
Fig. 7. Control Simulink interface.
Fig. 8. The parts of the designed PV chain.
Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
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No. of Pages 7, Model 5G
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Fig. 9. The curves of the system in function of voltage and time for G = 400 W/m2.
Fig. 10. The PPM of the system the in function of voltage and of the time for G = 600 W/m2.
Fig. 11. The curves of the system the in function of voltage and of the time when changing G from 400 W/m2to 600 W/m2.
Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
MATPR 9999
No. of Pages 7, Model 5G
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The interest by changing the irradiation G suddenly from
400 W/m2 to 600 W/m2, is to observe the system behaviour at this
immediate change of the irradiation and following its robustness
to reach its maximum power point, the system give a tool to investigate the efficiency of this realization carried out.
As illustrated in Fig. 11 and by only the both irradiations tested.
The system looks for and follows the new values of the maximum
power as shows in those curves of PV emulator’s output power as a
function of the voltage and of the time.
The power then reaches around the respective values 13 W and
16 W. So those values are quite well correlated with the maximum
powers in the static case presented previously.
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5. Conclusion
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In this study, a low cost controller has been developed to track
the maximum power point of PV system by INC strategy using
Arduino board via Matlab/Simulink as an interface of the control.
PV emulator with two sensors, buck-boost converter connected
to a resistive load has been also used.
It is found that the INC algorithm is easily implemented with
minimal of component and with fast convergence around the
desired MPP.
According to the results obtained from the practical tests of a
control realized platform. The proposed system showed its ability
to reach MPP under uniform and sudden changes of irradiation.
Thus, the platform controlled by the ‘‘incremental conductance”
strategy, based on the Arduino board via Matlab-Simulink, is corroborated as a cost-effective device for optimizing photovoltaic
chain.
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As a perspective to this work, it is recommended to develop this
realization for different types of PV modules, for different MPPT
strategies and via different electronic boards.
Uncited reference
[10].
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References
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[1] Appui a la politique energetique du maroc, www.giz-energy.ma.
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system based on an Arduino uno professional master memory university kasdi
merbah ouargla, 2015/2016.
[3] Bouderhim Brahim, Salhi Younis’ design and implementation of a chopper
boost MPPT based on an Arduino board, Professional master memory
university kasdi merbah – ouargla 2016/2017.
[4] Emuril Akbar, Bin Shaari, R.T. Naaygi, Performance evaluation of solar modules
using Lucas-Nulle Emulator, Int. J. Environ. Sci. (2018).
[5] Hamid Maçbahi, Power factor correction in a resonant converter with active
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[6] Edric Cabal, Energy optimization of the electronic adaptation floor dedicated to
conversion PhD Thesis, University of Toulouse III Paul Sabatier, France, 2008.
[7] Texas Instrument, TL494 Pulse with modulation control circuit, SLSO74HJanuary 1983–Revised March 2017.
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[9] N. Debili, Study and optimization in Matlab/Simulink environment of a
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[10] Borni Abdelhalim, Study and control of a circuit for extracting the maximum
power from a solar panel Magister Thesis, Mentouri University of Constantine,
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Please cite this article as: O. Oussalem, M. Kourchi, A. Rachdy et al., A low cost controller of PV system based on Arduino board and INC algorithm, Materials
Today: Proceedings, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.689
256
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