# LES TEMPS : FICHES RECAPITULATIVES présent simple et

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```LES TEMPS : FICHES RECAPITULATIVES
A) LES DEUX PRESENTS
pr&eacute;sent simple et pr&eacute;sent en be+ing
FORMATION
LE PRESENT (VALEUR)
EXEMPLES
Pr&eacute;sent simple
Base verbale (+ s &agrave; la
3e personne du
singulier)
Exprime / d&eacute;crit des actions
habituelles, permanentes,
&eacute;nonce des caract&eacute;ristiques,
des v&eacute;rit&eacute;s d’ordre g&eacute;n&eacute;ral.
I usually get up at 8.00. (A H)
John plays in the school football
team. (C)
We like sweets. (C)
The sun rises in the east. (VG)
(A H) = action habituelle - (C) = caract&eacute;ristique propre au sujet -(VG) = v&eacute;rit&eacute; g&eacute;n&eacute;rale.
 Le pr&eacute;sent simple : emplois

Actions se produisant souvent :
I take the bus at 8 every morning.
I don’t go to school on Saturdays.
I don’t eat fries very often.

Actions qui se produisent normalement, ordinairement.
My brother watches TV a lot.
My mother never drinks coffee.

V&eacute;rit&eacute;s g&eacute;n&eacute;rales
Water boils at 100&deg;C.
Water freezes at 0&deg;C.
Liquid nitrogen freezes at minus 209 degrees Celsius.
The Moon turns round the Earth.

Actions qui se d&eacute;roulent rapidement au moment o&ugrave; l’on parle.
Peterson overtakes Stanley who brakes sharply.

Dans les subordonn&eacute;es de temps, quand la principale est au futur.
I’ll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

Certains verbes sont le plus souvent utilis&eacute;s au pr&eacute;sent simple.
Do you think Tim is in love?
I know this woman. She always takes her dog for a walk.
We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Pr&eacute;sent simple
Forme
affirmative
I
play
You play
(s)he plays
It
We play
You play
They play
Forme n&eacute;gative
I
do not (don’t) play
You
do not (don’t) play
(s)he
does not (doesn’t) play
It
We
do not (don’t) play
You do not (don’t) play
They do not (don’t) play
Forme interrogative
Do I
play?
Do you
play?
Does
(s)he play?
It
Do
we play?
Do
you play?
Do t
hey play?
Le pr&eacute;sent en BE+ V-ing (ou pr&eacute;sent continu ou progressif)
FORMATION
Pr&eacute;sent en be+ ing
am / are /is / are +
V- ing
LE PRESENT (VALEUR)
EXEMPLES
Exprime des actions per&ccedil;ues en Sorry, I can’t talk to you. I’m
cours de d&eacute;roulement, dans doing my homework.
l’instant, le moment
o&ugrave;
l’&eacute;nonciateur parle
Emplois :

Actions qui se d&eacute;roulent au moment o&ugrave; l’on parle.
What are you doing? I’m watching a documentary.

Actions qui se d&eacute;roulent pendant une p&eacute;riode de temps limit&eacute;e dans laquelle on se
trouve et qui a lieu lors de l’&eacute;nonciation.
My brother is working in Australia this year.
I am reading an exciting detective novel at the moment.

Actions pr&eacute;vues dans le futur, projets, etc.
What are they doing next Wednesday?
We’re going to Spain this summer.
Forme affirmative
I
am (I’m) working
You
are (you’re) working
(s)he
is (s)he’s) working
It
is (it’s) working
We are (we’re) working
You are (you’re) working
They are (they(re) working
Forme n&eacute;gative
I
am not working
You are not working
(s)he is not working
It
We
are working
You
are working
They are working
Forme interrogative
Am I
working?
Are you working?
Is (s)he working?
it
Are we working?
Are you working?
Are they working?
B) LES TEMPS DU PASSE
FORMATION
Pr&eacute;t&eacute;rit simple
Base verbale + ed
Attention aux verbes
irr&eacute;guliers (il faut les
conna&icirc;tre par cœur)
Pr&eacute;t&eacute;rit en be+ ing
(past continuous)
was / were / + V-ing
VALEUR
D&eacute;crit des &eacute;v&eacute;nements pass&eacute;s. Il
peut s’employer avec des marqueurs
de temps qui pr&eacute;cisent une action
totalement r&eacute;volue.
Il peut &eacute;galement d&eacute;crire des actions
habituelles pass&eacute;es.
Actions successives, br&egrave;ves.
- D&eacute;crit une activit&eacute; en cours de
d&eacute;roulement dans le pass&eacute; et est
souvent mis en regard avec un
&eacute;v&eacute;nement soudain. (souvent utilis&eacute;
avec un pr&eacute;t&eacute;rit simple)
EXEMPLES
- Did you enjoy the film last night?
- No, I didn’t. I found it boring.
I enjoyed the meal we had last night.
Every day we got up early and had breakfast
together.
activit&eacute; en cours
&eacute;v&eacute;nement soudain
1
2
I was doing my homework when Bob rang.
While I was waiting for the train I met Karen
1
2
1 - While…bus = activit&eacute; en cours
2 - I met Karen = &eacute;v&eacute;nement soudain
Past Perfect simple
( pluperfect)
verbe
- Il sert aussi &agrave; d&eacute;crire plusieurs
activit&eacute;s en cours dans le pass&eacute; qui
The airport was full of people. Some were
sleeping on benches, some were shopping,
and others were reading. Everyone was
waiting for news of the delayed plane.
- Il peut &eacute;galement d&eacute;crire des
actions simultan&eacute;es se d&eacute;roulant
dans le pass&eacute;.
While Jim was cooking, David was phoning a
friend.
Il sert &agrave; exprimer une action dans le
pass&eacute;, ant&eacute;rieure &agrave; une action
pass&eacute;e &agrave; laquelle l’&eacute;nonciateur fait
r&eacute;f&eacute;rence
By the time I got to the station, the train had
left.
When he got back home, the thieves had
taken away whatever valuable objects they
Past perfect en be + ing Il sert &agrave; rep&eacute;rer une action ant&eacute;rieure The whole place was deserted, but it was
(pluperfect continuous) au past simple per&ccedil;ue en cours de
obvious that someone had been living there.
d&eacute;roulement
They’d been cooking in the kitchen for a start,
and they hadn’t bothered to clear up the
mess.
When the new player came onto the field, the
match had been going on for half an hour.
Pr&eacute;t&eacute;rit (Past simple)
Forme affirmative
Forme n&eacute;gative
Forme interrogative
I
stopped
You stopped
(s)he stopped
It
stopped
We stopped
You stopped
They stopped
I
You
(s)he
It
We
You
They
Did I stop?
Did you stop?
Did (s)he stop
Did it stop?
Did we stop?
Did you stop?
Did they stop?
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
did not (didn’t) stop
Present perfect
Forme affirmative
I
You
(s)he
It
We
You
They
have (I’ve) lost
have (you’ve) lost
has ((s)he’s) lost
has (it’s) lost
have (we’ve) lost
have (you’ve) lost
have (they’ve) lost
Forme n&eacute;gative
Forme interrogative
I
have not (haven’t) lost
You have not (haven’t) lost
(s)he has not (hasn’t) lost
It
has not (hasn’t) lost
We have not (haven’t) lost
You have not (haven’t) lost
They have not (haven’t) lost
Have I lost?
Have you lost?
Has (s)he lost?
Has it lost?
Have you lost?
Have you lost?
Have they lost?
C) L’ EXPRESSION DU FUTUR
Marqueurs temporels : rappel
Voici quelques rep&egrave;res temporels utilis&eacute;s pour renvoyer &agrave; l’avenir :
o Tomorrow : I’m not working tomorrow.
o Next week : I’ll see you at the party next week.
o After, later : I’ll tell you late. (sans compl&eacute;ment)
I’ll call you after the meeting. (avec compl&eacute;ment)
o In minute, in a moment, in two days, etc. : I’ll be with you in a moment.
She’ll be back in a moment.
I’ll see you in two days.
o At : I’ll be back at 9.00.
LE PRESENT SIMPLE
EXEMPLES
Le pr&eacute;sent simple peut servir &agrave; exprimer des Jane’s plane takes off at nine tomorrow
&eacute;v&eacute;nements futurs d&eacute;j&agrave; programm&eacute;s. Il morning.
s’emploie donc pour un horaire, un programme
Ici, c’est le rep&egrave;re temporel tomorrow morning
ou un emploi du temps.
qui situe l’&eacute;v&eacute;nement dans l’avenir.
.
LE PRESENT EN BE + ING
Le pr&eacute;sent en be + ing exprime des We’re flying to New York tomorrow morning.
&eacute;v&eacute;nements futurs qui sont d&eacute;j&agrave; pr&eacute;vus, Mary’s leaving tomorrow.
projet&eacute;s par le sujet ou par la personne qui
parle.
Dans ces phrases, ce sont les rep&egrave;res
Le pr&eacute;sent en be + ing pr&eacute;sente l’action temporels tomorrow morning et . tomorrow .qui
future comme si elle se d&eacute;roulait sous nos situent les &eacute;v&eacute;nements dans l’avenir.
yeux. C’est le compl&eacute;ment de temps qui
indique qu’il s’agit d’un futur.
BE GOING TO
Look at those black clouds! There is going to be
L’expression be going to suivie de la
a storm. [indices constat&eacute;s]
base verbale exprime la certitude qu’un
&eacute;v&eacute;nement va se produire. La certitude est
I’m going to work harder this year. [d&eacute;cision d&eacute;j&agrave;
fond&eacute;e soit sur une d&eacute;cision d&eacute;j&agrave; prise,
soit sur des indices d&eacute;j&agrave; constat&eacute;s dans la prise]
situation pr&eacute;sente.
WILL
Le modal will s’emploie pour pr&eacute;dire I think my mother will like her present. [pr&eacute;diction]
un &eacute;v&eacute;nement futur ou pour exprimer
une action dont la r&eacute;alisation d&eacute;pend Your bag looks heavy. I will carry it for you.
de la volont&eacute; du sujet. Comme tous les [volont&eacute;]
modaux, will est identique &agrave; toutes les
personnes et il est suivi de la base La forme contract&eacute;e de will est ’ll et celle de will
verbale.
not est won’t
LES SUBORDONNEES EN WHEN ET L’EXPRESSION DU FUTUR
Dans les subordonn&eacute;es temporelles
&agrave; sens futur introduites par une
conjonction
when (quand)
while (pendant que)
as soon as (d&egrave;s que, aussit&ocirc;t que)
until (jusqu’&agrave; ce que)
le verbe est toujours au le verbe de la proposition
pr&eacute;sent simple
principale se construit avec
will.
When / while / as soon as /
until + pr&eacute;sent simple
EXEMPLES
1.
When I am twenty
subordonn&eacute;e
2.
I will call you
proposition principale