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ALL Units Rules

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```Prepared by teacher Zouheyr Abidat.
Ago: How long ago did you go to Italy?
Past obligation: had to. Sumerians had to import raw materials. Substitution: was/were obliged to.
Negative: Sumerians had not (hadn't) to import raw materials. Substitution: wasn't/weren't obliged to.
Interrogative: Did Sumerians have to import raw materials?Substitution:Were they obliged to import raw materials?
Past ability: was/were able to // could: They were able to //could run ten miles.
Negative: wasn't/weren't able to//couldn't: They weren't able to /couldn't run ten miles.
Interrogative:Were they able to run ten miles?
Could they run ten miles?
Past habit: used to. They used to barter their goods.
Negative:They didn't use to barter their goods.
Interrogative:Did they use to barter their goods?
Condition:
As long as
=
So long as = Provided that / Providing that
1- As long as + Present Simple (subordinate clause)
,
= If = Only if =
But only if
Future Simple (Main clause).
2- Future Simple (Main clause) + As long as + Present Simple(Subordinate clause).
Conditional type 0:General truth (something that is always true)
if + present simple / present simple
Conditional type 1: Real Conditional:
If + present simple / will+ infinitive
Conditional type 2: Unreal Conditional:
If + past simple / would + stem
Conditional type 3: Hypothetical Conditional:
If + past perfect / would have + past participle
Wish about a present situation: Wish + Past Simple:1- I wish I could help you.2-I wish he were here.
NB: Were is used instead of was with I, She, He, It.
wish about something in the past: Wish + Past Participle:
Desire for change in the near future: Wish + would: (Especially something annoying us.)
1- I wish the test wouldn't be that difficult.
2- I wish I could lose weight. (with I , we use could instead of would)
It's high/about time + Past Simple: It's high time the government fought bribery.
Should have + past participle: You shouldn't have eaten so much!
Advice to avoid something bad in the present or in the future:
+better+stem ……?/
1234-
You'd better work harder; otherwise you might fail in your exam.
You'd better not touch that wire; otherwise you get shocked.
Had we better leave a note for the delivery guy to take the parcel next door?
Hadn’t you better switch your computer off? It might overheat if you leave it on.
NB: Had better can be replaced by &quot;should&quot;/&quot;ought to&quot;.
NB: We can use &quot;If I were you, …..&quot; to give an advice.
Unless: condition and warning:
1234-
Unless
= except if
=
if…not:
Unless it rains [SC] , we’ll go for a picnic by the river tomorrow [MC].
(We’ll go for a picnic by the river tomorrow if it doesn’t rain.)
I am not going to the party if Carol is not going.
I am not going to the party unless Carol is going.
Result:
/
Such + Noun phrase + that:
1- These products are imitated to such perfection that it is difficult to distinguish between the genuine and the fake
products.
2- The loss in profitability is so big that most of them have launched advertisement campaigns against
counterfeiting.
Remark: The pink colour: Main clause. /
The grey colour: Subordinate clause.
So, As a result, As a consequence, Consequently: Can be used to express result:
The loss in profitability is very big so, as a result, as a consequence, consequently, most of companies have launched
Comparative and superlative forms of quantifiers:
Quantifiers
Many
Much
Little
Few
Comparative forms
more than – as many as
more than – as much as
less than– as little as
fewer than – as few as
Superlative
the most
the most
the least
the fewest
Irregular comparatives and superlatives
Good / Well
Far
Many / Much
Little
Comparative
Better than
Worse than
Farther than / further than
More than
Less than
Comparatives of Inferiority
Comparatives of Equality
Less + adjective(short+ long) + than
Superlative
The best
The worst
The farthest/the furthest
The most
The least
Comparatives of Superiority
Superlatives of Inferiority
Superlatives of Superiority
The least + adjective ( short /long)
1-Short adj ends in E: Wide
3- Short adj ends in Y: Dry
Wider than
Bigger than
Drier than
The widest
The biggest
The driest
although / though/ in spite of the fact that/ despite the fact that/ despite+ noun phrase
I enjoyed the course, although/though I would have liked more grammar practice.
Although/Though we saw each other every day, we didn't really know each other.
I didn’t get the job in spite of the fact that I had all the necessary qualifications
I didn’t get the job despite the fact (that) I had all the necessary qualifications.
Despite having all the necessary qualifications (n ph), I didn't get the job.
TIME
Before, after, as soon as, when and until.
This morning, I got up as soon as the alarm clock rang at 6:10 a.m. I had breakfast after I had
brushed my teeth. I got dressed before I left home. I waited in the MTR station until the train
arrived. I read a book while I was traveling on the train. I went to the library when I arrived at
school.
*We can get opposites of words by adding prefixes such as dis and de:
words
Opposites
words
opposites
deactivate
Disagree
Activate
Agree
decode
Discomfort
Code
Comfort
deform
Dishonest
Form
Honest
detoxify
Dislike
Toxify
Like
deregulate
Regulate
Disbelief
Populated
depopulated
Belief
Dissatisfied
Motivate
demotivate
Satisfied
Loyal
Disloyal
Value
devalue
il, im, un, ir: married/unmarried, legal/illegal, fair/unfair, regular/irregular.
Most present and past participle forms of verbs that describe emotion or feelings can be used as adjectives, but the
meanings of the participles are not the same. For example:
A fresh ocean breeze on a hot summer day is refreshing, so I feel refreshed.
The present participle (-ing form of the verb) refers to something or somebody that causes the feeling:
The breeze is refreshing. (The breeze causes this feeling.)
The past participle (-ed form of the verb) is used to express how a person is affected by something.
I feel refreshed. (I am experiencing this feeling as a result of the breeze.)
amaze, amuse, annoy, calm, confuse, disgust , distract, disturb, embarrass, encourage, entertain, fascinate,
frighten , frustrate, infuriate, insult , please, refresh, relax, sicken, stimulate, surprise, terrify , thrill, worry
well-written, well-known
Pronounciation:
Final &quot;ed&quot;:
/t/
Voiceless sounds :
P,K,F,S,SH,CH,TH (‫)ث‬
/d/
Voiced sounds :
B,TH (‫ ( ذ‬,G,V,Z,DJ,M,N,L,R
And all vowel sounds
/id/
Words ending in T and D
/Z/
Voiced sounds:
B,D,G,L,M,N,NG,R,V,Y,W ,
TH ‫ذ‬
And all vowel sounds
/IZ/
C,S,X,Z,SS,CH,SH,GE
Final &quot;S&quot;:
/S/
Voiceless sounds:
P,K,T,F,PH,GH,TH ‫ث‬
CH: k/ tsh
archive
architect
architecture
archaic
archipelago
archaic
/k/
archetype
epoch
archaeology
Archimedes
archangel
/tsh/
Church
Coach
arch
archer
artichoke
archway
archduke
anarchy
alchemy
Sress:
Suffixes that will attract the stress on the Last Syllable:
-ade , -aire , -ee , -eer , -ese , -ette , -oo , -que , -sce , -oon ,
Suffixes that will attract the stress to the syllable just before the last one :
-ia, -ial , -ible , -ic(s) , -ian , -ient , -ious, -ish ,-osis , -sion , -tion .
Suffixes that will attract the stress to the syllable on the third from the last one:
-ate , -cy , -eous , -ical , -ify , -inal , -itive , -ity , -ize , -phy , -ogy . –y.
Suffixes that do not affect stress patterns:-al , -ally , -ess , -ful , -ish , -less , -ly , -hood , -ship.
Syllable Division Rules
1. Separate prefixes and suffixes from root words.
o examples: pre-view, work-ing, re-do, end-less, &amp; out-ing
2. Are two (or more) consonants next to each other?
st
nd
o Divide between the 1 and 2 consonants.
 examples: buf-fet, des-sert, ob-ject, ber-ry, &amp; pil-grim
3- Never split 2 consonants that make only 1 sound when pronounced together and aren't the
same letter (i.e., 'ff').
i. examples: th, sh, ph, th, ch, &amp; wh
4- Is the consonant surrounded by vowels?
a. Does the vowel have a long sound? (Like the 'i' in line)
i. Divide before the consonant.
ii. examples: ba-by, re-sult, i-vy, fro-zen, &amp; Cu-pid
b. Does the vowel have a short sound? (Like the 'i' in mill)
i. Divide after the consonant.
ii. examples: met-al, riv-er, mod-el, val-ue, &amp; rav-age
5- Does the word end with 'ckle'?
a. Divide right before the 'le.'
b. examples: tack-le, freck-le, tick-le, &amp; buck-le
6- Does the word end with 'le' (not 'ckle')?
a. Is the letter before the 'le' a consonant?
i. Divide 1 letter before the 'le.'
ii. examples: ap-ple, rum-ble, fa-ble, &amp; ta-ble
b. Is the letter before the 'le' a vowel?
i. Do nothing.
ii. examples: ale, scale, sale, file, &amp; tile
Examples
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‫ا‬
little: lit – tle
petal: pet - al
turtle: tur - tle
ankle: an - kle
riddle: rid - dle
arrow: ar - row
nickel: nick - el
cotton: cot - ton
student: stu - dent
teacher: teach - er
children: chil - dren
pottery: pot - ter - y
learning: learn - ing
textbook: text - book
watching: watch - ing
screaming: scream - ing
misbehaving: mis - be - hav - ing
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