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Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Systems

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Handbook for
Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
Systems
1
Contents
1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Types of Solar PV System
1.3 Solar PV Technology
• Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies
• Conversion Efficiency
• Effects of Temperature
1.4 Technical Information
4
4
5
6
8
8
9
10
2
Solar PV Systems on a Building
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Installation Angle
2.3 Avoid Shading PV Modules
2.4 Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules
2.5 Solar PV Output Profile
2.6 Solar PV Yield
2.7 Cost of a Solar PV System
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12
12
13
14
14
15
15
3
Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Getting Started
• Get an Experienced and Licensed Contractor
• Choosing Between Bids
• Solar PV System Warranty
• Regular Maintenance
• Other Relevant Matters
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19
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4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
4.1 Electrical Installation Licence
4.2 Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements
4.3 Application of Electrical Installation Licence
4.4 Conservation and Development Control Requirements
4.5 Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control
4.6 Structural Safety and Lightning Protection
• Structural Safety
• Lightning Protection
4.7 Connection to the Power Grid
4.8 Get Connected to the Power Grid
4.9 Sale of Solar PV Electricity
4.10 Design and Installation Checklist
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22
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27
5
Operations and Maintenance
5.1 Operations of Solar PV Systems
5.2 Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works
28
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29
Appendices
Appendix A – Examples of solar pv system on buildings in
singapore
A.1
ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA Academy
32
A.2
POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING)
34
A.3
313 SOMERSET CENTRAL
36
A.4
Sentosa Cove
38
A.5
Marina Barrage
40
A.6
Lonza Biologics
42
A.7
Zero Energy House
44
A.8
Tampines Grande
46
A.9 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT Serangoon North Precinct A.10 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS AT Wellington Circle Precinct 48
50
Appendix B
B.1
Engaging a Licensed Electrical Worker
52
Appendix C
C.1
CONTACT INFORMATION
54
Appendix D – INCENTIVES FOR SOLAR PV SYSTEM
D.1
Solar Capability Scheme (SCS)
55
D.2 Market Development Fund (MDF)
56
D.3 Green Mark Scheme
57
D.4 Green Mark Gross Floor Area (GM-GFA) Incentive Scheme
58
D.5 $100 million Green Mark Incentive Scheme For existing buildings (GMIS-EB)
59
D.6 Enhanced $20 million Green Mark Incentive Scheme for new buildings (GMIS-NB)
60
1
Foreword
Cognizant of the growing popularity of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations amongst residential
dwellers as well as building developers, and the corresponding demand for a comprehensive
set of technical and regulatory information, the Energy Market Authority (EMA) and the Building
Construction Authority (BCA) got together earlier this year to work on integrating their respective
solar manuals into an all-in-one reference guide for those who are keen on installing solar PV
systems in Singapore.
The outcome of this joint project, which also saw the involvement of industry partners and
stakeholders such as Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd, Grenzone Pte Ltd, Solar Energy Research Institute
of Singapore (SERIS) and Singapore Polytechnic, is this “Handbook for Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
Systems”. Through this integrated and revised handbook, we hope to be able to provide a
comprehensive guide to the relevant parties, including owners, developers, engineers, architects,
Licensed Electrical Workers and electricians on the key issues, requirements and processes
pertaining to the installation of solar PV systems.
As with the previous edition of the handbooks, this single volume covers and provides information
on licensing, market and technical requirements, and building and structural issues that are related
to the implementation of solar PV systems in a building environment. In addition, it provides new
information on the installation requirements for solar PV systems, operations and recommended
preventive maintenance works, and various incentives to promote solar PV systems in Singapore.
We have also refreshed the presentation of the handbook to make it more accessible and readerfriendly, as well as to incorporate examples of completed solar PV installations in Singapore.
We hope you will find this to be a useful guide.
David Tan
Deputy Chief Executive
Energy Planning and Development Division
Energy Market Authority
2
Ang Kian Seng
Director
Centre of Sustainable Building & Construction
Building and Construction Authority
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank the following organisations for their support and contributions in
the development of this handbook:
1)
Grenzone Pte Ltd
2)
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
3)
Singapore Polytechnic
4)
Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS)
5)
SP PowerGrid
6)
Urban Redevelopment Authority
3
1
Solar Photovoltaic
(“PV”) Systems –
An Overview
1.1
Introduction
The sun delivers its energy to us in two main forms: heat and light. There are two main
types of solar power systems, namely, solar thermal systems that trap heat to warm up
water, and solar PV systems that convert sunlight directly into electricity as shown in
Figure 1.
Figure 1. The difference between solar thermal and solar PV systems
When the PV modules are exposed to sunlight, they generate direct current (“DC”)
electricity. An inverter then converts the DC into alternating current (“AC”) electricity,
so that it can feed into one of the building’s AC distribution boards (“ACDB”) without
affecting the quality of power supply.
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
1.2
Types of Solar PV System
Solar PV systems can be classified based on the end-use application of the technology.
There are two main types of solar PV systems: grid-connected (or grid-tied) and off-grid
(or stand alone) solar PV systems.
Grid-connected solar PV systems
The main application of solar PV in Singapore is grid-connected, as Singapore’s main
island is well covered by the national power grid. Most solar PV systems are installed
on buildings or mounted on the ground if land is not a constraint. For buildings, they are
either mounted on the roof or integrated into the building. The latter is also known as
Building Integrated Photovoltaics (“BIPV”). With BIPV, the PV module usually displaces
another building component, e.g. window glass or roof/wall cladding, thereby serving a
dual purpose and offsetting some costs.
The configuration of a grid-connected solar PV system is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Grid-connected solar PV system configuration
A building has two parallel power supplies, one from the solar PV system and the other
from the power grid. The combined power supply feeds all the loads connected to the
main ACDB.
The ratio of solar PV supply to power grid supply varies, depending on the size of the
solar PV system. Whenever the solar PV supply exceeds the building’s demand, excess
electricity will be exported into the grid. When there is no sunlight to generate PV
electricity at night, the power grid will supply all of the building’s demand.
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
A grid-connected system can be an effective way to reduce your dependence on utility
power, increase renewable energy production, and improve the environment.
Off-grid solar PV systems
Off-grid solar PV systems are applicable for areas without power grid. Currently, such
solar PV systems are usually installed at isolated sites where the power grid is far away,
such as rural areas or off-shore islands. But they may also be installed within the city in
situations where it is inconvenient or too costly to tap electricity from the power grid.
For example, in Singapore, several URA parking sign lights are powered by off-grid solar
PV systems.
An off-grid solar PV system needs deep cycle rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid,
nickel-cadmium or lithium-ion batteries to store electricity for use under conditions
where there is little or no output from the solar PV system, such as during the night, as
shown in Figure 3 below.
Figure 3. Off-grid solar PV system configuration
1.3
Solar PV Technology
This section gives a brief description of the solar PV technology and the common
technical terms used.
A solar PV system is powered by many crystalline or thin film PV modules. Individual
PV cells are interconnected to form a PV module. This takes the form of a panel for easy
installation.
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
Mono-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell
Poly-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell
Figure 4. Mono-and Poly-Crystalline Silicon PV Cell
PV cells are made of light-sensitive semiconductor materials that use photons to dislodge
electrons to drive an electric current. There are two broad categories of technology used
for PV cells, namely, crystalline silicon, as shown in Figure 4 which accounts for the
majority of PV cell production; and thin film, which is newer and growing in popularity.
The “family tree” in Figure 5 gives an overview of these technologies available today
and Figure 6 illustrates some of these technologies.
PV Cell Types
Crystalline Silicon
(wafer based)
Thin Film
Special
Poly-crystalline
Amorphous-Si
(a-Si)
Mono-crystalline
Tandem
a-Si/microcrystalline
Compound semiconductor
eg GaAs-based
CIGS
(Copper Indium Gallium
Selenide)
CdTe
(Cadmium Telluride)
Dye-sensitised (TiO2)
Commercially
available product,
suitable for Singapore
R&D or pilot stage, or
unsuitable for
Singapore
Figure 5. PV technology family tree
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
Mono-crystalline
silicon
Poly-crystalline
silicon
Flexible amorphous
thin film
CIGS thin film
Figure 6. Common PV module technologies
Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Technologies
Crystalline cells are made from ultra-pure silicon raw material such as those used in
semiconductor chips. They use silicon wafers that are typically 150-200 microns (one
fifth of a millimetre) thick.
Thin film is made by depositing layers of semiconductor material barely 0.3 to 2
micrometres thick onto glass or stainless steel substrates. As the semiconductor layers
are so thin, the costs of raw material are much lower than the capital equipment and
processing costs.
Conversion Efficiency
Technology
Mono-crystalline Silicon
Poly-crystalline Silicon
Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS)
Cadmium Telluride (CdTe)
Amorphous Silicon (a-Si)
Module Efficiency
12.5-15%
11-14%
10-13%
9-12%
5-7%
Table 1. Conversion efficiencies of various PV module technologies
Apart from aesthetic differences, the most obvious difference amongst PV cell
technologies is in its conversion efficiency, as summarised in Table 1.
For example, a thin film amorphous silicon PV array will need close to twice the space
of a crystalline silicon PV array because its module efficiency is halved, for the same
nominal capacity under Standard Test Conditions1 (STC) rating.
Standard Test Conditions refer to the following testing conditions:
• 1,000W/m2 of sunlight
• 250C cell temperature
• Spectrum at air mass of 1.5
1
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
For crystalline silicon PV modules, the module efficiency is lower compared to the sum
of the component cell efficiency due to the presence of gaps between the cells and the
border around the circuit i.e., wasted space that does not generate any power hence
lower total efficiency. Effects of Temperature
Another important differentiator in solar PV performance, especially in hot climates, is
the temperature coefficient of power. PV cell performance declines as cell temperature
rises.
For example, in bright sunlight, cell temperatures in Singapore can reach over 70ºC,
whereas PV modules are rated at a cell temperature of 25ºC. The loss in power output
at 70ºC is therefore measured as (70 - 25) x temperature coefficient.
Most thin film technologies have a lower negative temperature coefficient compared to
crystalline technologies. In other words, they tend to lose less of their rated capacity as
temperature rises. Hence, under Singapore’s climatic condition, thin film technologies
will generate 5-10% more electricity per year.
A PV module data sheet should specify the temperature coefficient. See Table 2 and
chart in Figure 7.
TechnologyTemperature Coefficient
[%/°C]
Crystalline silicon
-0.4 to -0.5
CIGS
-0.32 to -0.36
CdTe
-0.25
a-Si
-0.21
module output relative to STC
Table 2. Temperature coefficient of various PV cell technologes
Figure 7. The effects of a negative temperature
coefficient of power on PV module performance
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
The PV modules are next connected in series into a PV string as shown in Figure 8.
A PV array as shown in Figure 9 is formed by the parallel aggregation of PV strings.
Figure 9. PV Array
Figure 8. PV String
1.4
Technical Information
Single-core, double isolated sheathed cables that can withstand the environmental
conditions, and minimise the risk of earth faults and short circuits are used to interconnect
the PV strings and arrays. The cable connections are protected in enclosures known as
junction box that provides the necessary connectors as shown in Figure 10.
Figure 10. Junction Box
Electricity produced by the solar PV installation is in the form of DC. The output of the
PV installation is connected through the DC main cables to the DC terminals of the PV
inverter where electricity is converted from DC into AC.
After conversion, the AC current of the PV inverter is connected through PV supply
cable to the building’s electrical installation (AC distribution board). Figure 11 shows a typical PV inverter connected to the electrical installation of a
building. Note that the actual configuration of the PV inverter may vary across different
systems.
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Chapter 1
Solar Photovoltaic (“PV”) Systems – An Overview
DC Side
AC Side
PV
Inverter
AC Distribution
Board
PV DC Main
Cable
PV Supply
Cable
Figure 11. Typical PV inverter connected to a
building’s electrical installation
Just like any electrical installation in a building, earthing is an important safety requirement
for solar PV system. Arrangement must be made for proper connection of the solar PV
system to the consumer’s electrical installation earthing system.
In locations susceptible to lightning strikes, a lightning protection system must be
provided, and all the exposed metallic structures of the solar PV system must be bound
to the lightning earthing system.
It is the responsibility of the consumers to have their solar PV systems maintained
regularly to ensure safe operation of their solar PV systems and electrical installations.
See Figure 12 for a diagram showing the solar PV system forming part of a consumer’s
electrical installation.
Figure 12. Solar PV system forming part of a consumer’s electrical installation
11
2
Solar PV Systems
on a Building
2.1
Introduction
There are many examples overseas where PV modules are mounted on the roof and
integrated into building façades. They work particularly well in Europe and North America,
as south-facing façades in these regions are well exposed to the sun. In Singapore, we have to consider that the sun passes almost directly overhead. This is
because we are located near the Equator, and the path of the sun follows the Equator,
o
with seasonal variations of up to 23.5 to the north or south. Therefore there are optimal
positions to locate the PV modules that have to be taken into consideration. Refer to
Appendix A for examples of solar PV systems on buildings in Singapore.
2.2
Installation Angle
To maximise electricity production for use in Singapore, the best location for the
PV modules to be installed is right on top of a building, facing the sky. The possible
installation options are shown in Figure 13.
Figure 13. Where to install PV modules on a building in Singapore
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Chapter 2
Solar PV Systems on a Building
Vertical façades and steeply sloped roofs tend to suffer a big loss in the ability to generate
electricity in exchange for higher public visibility.
With the PV modules facing the sky, it is possible to improve the yield by installing PV
modules on trackers to follow the sun from east to west during the day (single-axis
trackers), and from north to south during seasonal changes (dual-axis trackers).
However, trackers can only improve system performance under direct sunshine, and
they give no advantage in diffused sunlight conditions, such as on cloudy or hazy days.
The down side of having flat-mounted PV modules is that they tend to get dirty from
rain water and dust. See Figure 14. It is therefore better to mount the PV modules at an
o
o
incline (10-15 for framed modules, or as little as 3-5 for unframed modules), to allow
rain water to properly drain off
Figure 14. PV module frames trap dirt as water evaporates from a
flat-mounted PV module
2.3
Avoid Shading PV Modules
PV modules should be free from shade. Shading of any single cell of a crystalline silicon
PV module will drastically reduce the output of the entire PV module.
Thin film PV modules are more tolerant to partial shading than crystalline silicon PV
modules. Typical culprits include shadows cast by tall trees and neighbouring buildings.
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Chapter 2
Solar PV Systems on a Building
2.4
Aesthetic and Creative Approaches in Mounting PV Modules
Besides mounting PV modules on the rooftop, customised PV modules can be
integrated into the building façade in a creative, aesthetically pleasing manner. They can
be mounted on any part of the rooftop or external walls that is well exposed to sunlight
e.g. skylights, cladding, windows, and external shading devices.
They can also be integrated into external structures such as façades and canopies, as
shown in Figure 15 and Figure 16, respectively.
Figure 15. BIPV modules integrated
into a façade
Figure 16. BIPV modules integrated into a
skylight canopy
2.5
Solar PV Output Profile
Solar PV only produces electricity when sunlight is available. The output of a solar PV
system varies with its rated output, temperature, weather conditions, and time of the
day. The power output profile of the PV installation as shown in Figure 17, at a selected
test site in Singapore collected over a period from 2002-2004, in terms of its capacity
factor2 , shows a high variation of solar PV output.
[2] PV Output capacity factor = Ratio of the actual output of the PV installation at time (t) over its output if it
had operated at full rated output.
14
PV output capacity factor
Chapter 2
Solar PV Systems on a Building
Figure 17. Varying daily power output profile of PV installation
at a selected test site in Singapore
2.6
Solar PV Yield
The amount of electricity you are able to generate from a solar PV system depends not
only on the availability of sunshine but also on the technology you choose to install. For
example, a typical 10-kW rooftop solar PV system in Singapore would produce about
11,000 to 12,500 kWh annually using crystalline PV modules, and 12,000 to 14,500 kWh
annually with amorphous silicon thin film PV modules.
2.7
Cost of a Solar PV System
The cost of your solar PV system will depend on many factors: system configuration,
equipment options, labour cost and financing cost. Prices also vary depending on factors
such as whether or not your home is new, and whether the PV modules are integrated
into the roof or mounted on the roof. The cost also depends on the system size or
rating, and the amount of electricity it produces. Generally, solar PV systems entail high capital costs. With solar power, you can save on
the purchase of electricity from the grid. But even with these savings, it will take a long
time to recover the capital cost of the solar PV installation. The operating costs for solar
PV installations are negligible, but the annual maintenance cost beyond the warranty
period may amount to 0.5% to 1% of the capital cost of the installation.
Therefore on an overall basis, solar PV-derived electricity is still much more expensive
than that from the power grid. However, the cost of solar PV has historically been falling
by about 4% a year, and if this continues, solar PV may be competitive within the next
10 years. For incentives on solar PV system, please refer to Appendix D.
15
3
Appointing a
Solar PV System
Contractor
3.1
Introduction
You will need to select a contractor to install your solar PV system. If interested, you
may check with the following organisations for some solar PV system designers and
contractors:
•
The List of Solar PV System companies in Singapore, available from Sustainable
Energy Association of Singapore, by calling 6338 8578 or by visiting
http://www.seas.org.sg/about-seas/our-committees/cleanenergy/54
•
The Singapore Sustainable Development Industry Directory 2008/2009, available
from the Singapore Business Federation, by calling 6827 6838 or by visiting
http://www.sbf.org.sg/public/publications/industrydirectory.jsp
Your contractor will appoint a Licensed Electrical Worker (“LEW”) who will be responsible
for the design, installation, testing, commissioning, and maintenance of your solar PV
system.
In the case of non-residential electrical installations that require an electrical installation
licence, the appointed LEW who supervises the electrical work (“Design LEW”) may
not be the one who takes charge of your electrical installation (“Installation LEW”). The
Design LEW will then have to work with the Installation LEW to work out the technical
issues.
Please refer to Appendix B for details on how you can engage an LEW and the necessary
consultation process.
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Chapter 3
Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor
3.2
Getting Started
First, compile a list of potential solar PV system contractors. Next, contact the
contractors to find out the products and services they offer. The following pointers may
give consumers a good sense of the contractor’s capabilities:
Get an experienced and licensed contractor
Experience in installing grid-connected solar PV systems is invaluable, because some
elements of the installation process, particularly interconnection with the grid, are
unique to these systems. A contractor with years of experience will also demonstrate
an ability to work with consumers, and price their products and services competitively.
It is also important to get a contractor who is an LEW.
Choosing between bids
If there are several bids for the installation of a solar PV system (it is generally a good
practice to obtain multiple bids), consumers should take steps to ensure that all of
the bids received are made on the same basis. Comparing a bid for a solar PV system
mounted on the ground against another bid for a rooftop system is like comparing apples
to oranges.
Bids should clearly state the maximum generating capacity of the solar PV system
[measured in watts peak (Wp) or kilowatts peak (kWp)]. If possible, the bids should
specify the system capacity in AC watts, or specify the output of the system at the
inverter.
Bids should also include the total cost of getting the solar PV system components,
including hardware, software, supporting structure, meter, installation, connection to the
grid (if applicable), permitting, goods and services tax, warranty, and future maintenance
cost (if applicable).
Solar PV system warranty
A solar PV system is an investment that should last a long time, typically two to three
decades for grid-connected applications. The industry standard for a PV module warranty
is 20-25 years on the power output.
There are two main components to a PV module warranty:
• A workmanship warranty that offers to repair, replace or refund the purchase
in case of defects. The period varies from one to as long as ten years,
depending on the manufacturer. Two to five years is typical; and
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Chapter 3
Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor
• A limited power output warranty that offers a variety of remedies in case the
PV module’s output under STC drops below certain level. Most manufacturers
warrant at least 90% of the minimum rated output for 10 years, and 80% of
the minimum rated output for 20-25 years. Take note that the minimum rated
output is usually defined as 95% of the rated output to allow for manufacturing
and measurement tolerances. See Figure 18 for details.
Figure 18. Understanding a manufacturer’s limited power warranty
Take note that under the limited power warranty, manufacturers seldom offer to replace
the PV module itself. Rather, at their sole discretion, they may offer to:
• Repair the defective PV modules;
• Supply enough new PV modules to replace the lost power output in a PV
array. For example, if your 20kW PV array only produces 16.1kW under STC,
six years after installation, the manufacturer may opt to supply you with 1kW
of PV modules to make up for the shortfall; or
• Refund you for the lost power output, after deduction according to the number
of years in use. For a 25-year warranty, the annual deduction is normally 4%.
For example, if you find that your 20kW PV array only produces 16.1kW under
STC, six years after installation, the manufacturer may opt to reimburse your
purchase price minus 24% (6 years x 4%).
In all cases, the manufacturer does not cover your costs of dismounting, transporting,
and reinstalling the PV modules. The warranty also excludes problems resulting from
improper installations; repairs, changes or dismounting by unqualified personnel;
accidental breakage or abuse; lightning strikes and other acts of God.
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Chapter 3
Appointing a Solar PV System Contractor
Significantly, most manufacturers specify that the PV module output will be determined
by the flash testers in their own premises, rather than by a third party.
The solar PV system contractor should assist in determining whether a PV module
defect is covered by warranty, and should handle the situation with the manufacturer.
Regular maintenance
During the defect liability period (usually for 12 months after installation), solar PV system
contractors usually use remote monitoring data to prepare monthly performance reports
of the installed solar PV system. They should come on site to rectify any problems
flagged by the remote monitoring service.
Other relevant matters
Another matter to be aware of is that PV module manufacturers are constantly upgrading
their products, and adapting new sizes and dimensions to suit market requirements.
This means that you may no longer be able to buy an identical PV module to replace
a defective one in your PV array a few years after installation. Newer PV modules are
likely to be more efficient or have different physical dimensions, and may no longer fit
exactly into the gap left by the old PV module.
This does not matter much on a large, ground-mounted solar PV power plant, because
the new modules can form a new row. But on a building-mounted solar PV system it
may spoil the aesthetics, and may cause problems to the electrical configuration.
19
4
Solar PV System
Installation
Requirements
4.1
Electrical Installation Licence
An electrical installation refers to any electrical wiring, fitting or apparatus used for
the conveyance and control of electricity in any premises. A solar PV system installed
within such premises forms part of the consumer’s electrical installation and should
comply with the requirements stipulated in the Electricity Act (Cap. 89A), the Electricity
(Electrical Installations) Regulations and the Singapore Standard CP5 Code of Practice
for Electrical Installations. Under the Electricity Act, the Energy Market Authority (“EMA”) licenses all nonresidential electrical installations, with demand exceeding 45 kilo volt ampere or kVA. For
residential electrical installations and non-residential electrical installations with demand
below the threshold 45kVA, no electrical installation licence is required.
The licence requires the owner of the electrical installation to engage an LEW to take
charge of the electrical installation and comply with the relevant safety standards and
requirements. Your appointed LEW shall consult SP PowerGrid Ltd on their technical
requirements and procedures, if you wish to operate your solar PV system in parallel
with the power grid. The objective is to ensure all electrical installations, including solar
PV systems, are safe to use.
4.2
Electrical Safety Standards and Requirements
A grid-connected solar PV system operates in parallel with the power grid supply. The
power grid supply is considered the source, and the electrical installation with the solar
PV system connected is considered as the load.
The technical requirement for installation of a solar PV system is given in Section 612 of
the Singapore Standard CP5. There are international product standards on PV modules and electrical components. For
example, PV modules should comply with the requirements of IEC 61215 for crystalline
silicon terrestrial PV modules or IEC 61646 for thin-film terrestrial PV modules. In
addition, PV array junction box, PV generator junction box and switchgear assemblies
should comply with the requirements of IEC 60439-1. 20
Chapter 4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
4.3
Application of Electrical Installation Licence
Your LEW will be able to advise you whether you need to apply to EMA for an Electrical
Installation Licence for the use or operation of the electrical installation within the
premises of your building.
If an Electrical Installation Licence is needed, your LEW will submit the licence application
to EMA on your behalf. If you already have an Electrical Installation Licence issued by
EMA, you need not apply for a separate licence for the solar PV system within the same
premises.
The electrical licence fee payable to EMA is $100 per year (exclusive of goods and
services tax).
4.4
Conservation and Development Control Requirements
At present, there is no specific requirement or control by the Urban Redevelopment
Authority (“URA”) on the use of installations such as a solar PV system. However,
conservation projects, or projects within the Central Area are subject to URA’s Urban
Design evaluation process.
The standard development control guidelines apply to projects that may not be subject
to conservation or urban design requirements, depending on which structure(s) the
solar PV system is installed onto. For example, if a solar PV system is installed on the
rooftop of an attic, then the attic guidelines will apply. Likewise, if a solar PV system is
installed on raised structures like a pavilion, then the pavilion guidelines will apply.
4.5
Guidelines on Conservation and Development Control
Architects are advised to refer to the conservation and development control guidelines
when designing a development with a solar PV system installation. The respective
guideline is available at URA’s website:
http://www.ura.gov.sg/conservation/Cons%20Guidelines.pdf
http://www.ura.gov.sg/circulars/text/dchandbook.html
Should you have further enquiries on whether your installations conflict with the Urban
Design or Development Control guidelines, you may submit your enquiries to URA either
in person or through a Qualified Person (“QP”) — a QP is either a registered architect
or an engineer — with the accompanying plans of the structures on which the solar PV
system will be installed:
Conserved buildings
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6329 3355
Non-conserved buildings
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6223 4811
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Chapter 4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
Should a formal development application to URA be required, it must be made via a QP.
The details can be checked at the two web links below:
http://www.boa.gov.sg/register.html
http://www.peb.gov.sg/peb/process/searchPe
4.6
Structural Safety and Lightning Protection
Structural Safety
To ensure safety, there are measures and steps that need to be taken or considered
when installing a solar PV system onto a new or an existing building. For new building
developments, the design of the structure must take into consideration the loading of
the solar PV system installation, just like any other equipment mounted onto a building
structure.
For existing buildings, a professional structural engineer may be required to carry out an
inspection of the roof structure, and do a calculation on the structural loading. If the roof
is unable to withstand the loading of the solar PV system, structural plans will need to
be submitted to the Building and Construction Authority (“BCA”) for approval before a
building permit can be issued for commencement of installation works. The application
guideline is available at the following BCA’s website:
http://www.bca.gov.sg/StructuralPlan/structural_plan_application.html
Lightning Protection
Given a certain location, solar PV systems are exposed to the threat of lightning strikes.
As lightning can cause damage to the PV modules and inverters, extra care must be
taken to ensure that proper lightning protection is provided for the solar PV system and
the entire structure. The inverters should be protected by appropriately rated surge
arrestors on the DC side. It is good practice to also install surge arrestors on the AC side.
Structures and PV module frames must be properly grounded.
4.7
Connection to the Power Grid
If a solar PV system is designed to meet only a fraction of the electricity load, the
system will need to be interconnected with the power grid to meet the remainder of the
consumer’s needs for electricity.
If a solar PV system needs to be grid-connected, interconnection is key to the safety of
both consumers and electrical workers, and to the protection of equipment.
22
Chapter 4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
4.8
Get Connected to the Power Grid
If you intend to connect and operate your solar PV system in parallel to the power grid,
your appointed LEW will have to consult SP PowerGrid (“SPPG”) on the connection
scheme and technical requirements.
The following documents set out the detailed consultation process and technical
requirements:
•
The Transmission Code and the Metering Code are published at EMA’s website: http://www.ema.gov.sg/media/files/codes_of_practice/electricity/transmission_
code.pdf
http://www.ema.gov.sg/media/files/codes_of_practice/electricity/Metering_
Code.pdf
•
SPPG’s handbook, How to Apply for Electricity Connection, is published at SP
PowerAsset’s website:
http://www.sppowerassets.com.sg/PDF/howtoapply.pdf
4.9
Sale of Solar PV Electricity
The excess electricity generated from a grid-connected solar PV can be sold back to the
power grid. The arrangements needed to enable this sale of solar PV electricity vary,
depending on whether you are a contestable or non-contestable consumer.
Consumers are classified, based on their average monthly electricity consumption,
into:
•
Contestable consumers: These consumers are the non-residential consumers who
use more than 10,000 kWh of electricity a month. Contestable consumers have a
choice of who they wish to buy their electricity from. They may purchase electricity
from a retailer, directly from the wholesale market (provided they are registered
with the Energy Market Company as market participants) or indirectly from the
wholesale market through SP Services.
•
Non-contestable consumers: These consumers comprise all the residential electricity
users and non-residential consumers who use less than 10,000 kWh of electricity a
month. These consumers are supplied with electricity by SP Services.
Contestable Consumers
If you are a contestable consumer generating electricity from a solar PV system and
wish to sell and get paid for the electricity you inject into the power grid, you will be
required to register with the Energy Market Company (“EMC”) to participate in the
wholesale electricity market, which is called the National Electricity Market of Singapore
or NEMS.
23
Chapter 4
installing a solar PV system
The flowchart in Figure 19 describes the circumstances under which the Generation
Licence or Wholesaler (Generation) Licence is required. Proposed Generation Unit
(e.g. Cogen, PV system, etc.)
Generation Capacity ≥ 10 MW?
Apply to EMA for
Generation Licence
Yes
No
1MW ≥ Generation Capacity < 10 MW?
Yes
No
Generation Capacity < 1MW
Connected to
power grid?
Yes
Apply to EMA for
Wholesaler
(Generation) Licence
No
Generation Licence or
Wholesaler (Generation)
Licence not required
Figure 19. Flowchart for Electricity Licences
The application procedures to register as a Market Participant with the EMC and for
generation facility registration are set out in the Market Manual: Market Administration–
Registration and Authorisation, which is available at the EMC website:
http://www.emcsg.com/MarketRules/MarketManuals
As a Market Participant, you will need to comply with the Market Rules, which is available
at EMC’s website:
http://www.emcsg.com/MarketRules
By selling electricity in the wholesale electricity market, you will be paid the prevailing
electricity spot price for the electricity that you inject into the power grid. The electricity
spot price varies every half-hour, depending on the demand-supply situation in the
wholesale electricity market.
The market will also offer services and system resources to you, but you will be subjected
to market charges in respect to the gross generation output from your registered PV
system, for the provision of the market services and system resources.
24
Chapter 4
installing a solar PV system
The EMC contact is:
Market Administration Team
Energy Market Company
238A Thomson Road, #11-01 Novena Square Tower A, S307684
Telephone: 67793000
E-mail: [email protected]
Non-Contestable Consumers
If you are a non-contestable consumer generating electricity of less than 1 MW and
wish to sell and get paid for the electricity you inject into the power grid, you need not
apply for a Generation or Wholesaler (Generation ) Licence nor register with the EMC
as a market participant. You will have to apply to SP Services (“SPS”) by following the
application procedure set out in Appendix B.
Non-contestable consumers are compensated by SPS for electricity exported to the
power grid by way of a credit adjustment to the consumer’s monthly electricity bill,
based on the prevailing low-tension electricity tariff less the grid charge.
The credit adjustment will effectively compensate the non-contestable consumer for
the amount of electricity exported into the power grid during that month.
This scheme to compensate non-contestable consumers with generation capacity of
less than 1MW for the electricity they export into the power grid is not applicable to
those consumers whose electricity consumption is metered under the master-sub
metering scheme.
Master-sub metering schemes refer to metering arrangements where there is a
master-meter measuring the overall electricity consumed by the building (i.e. both the
individual units and the common services), with sub-meters measuring the usage of the
individual units. Such metering schemes are typically used in private condominiums
and commercial buildings.
Under a master-sub metering arrangement, the electricity that an individual unit attempts
to export into the grid may in fact be used up by the common services or by other
individual units. As it is not possible to track the actual flow of the electricity exported
by the individual units, the credit adjustment scheme cannot be applied to those under
the master-sub metering scheme.
25
Chapter 4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
4.10
Design and Installation Checklist
You are advised to refer to the following checklist once you have decided to install solar
PV system in your premises.
No.Design and Installation Checklist
1
2
Set your budget and select a location.
Determine the energy requirement and estimate the size
of the system.
3
Perform a site survey for space needed, and access for maintenance.
4
Engage a licensed electrical worker (“LEW”) if your proposed
solar PV system:
i) is to be connected to the electrical installation within
the premises of the building; and /or
ii) to be connected and operated in parallel to the power grid.
The appointed LEW will be responsible for the design and
implementation of the connection of your solar PV system to
the electrical installation and/or power grid.
5
Select a PV module type and mounting method.
6
Select inverter to match PV array:
i) Number of inverters needed;
ii) Select inverter type; and
iii) Location of inverters (accessible for inspection and maintenance).
7
Finalise the mounting system.
8
Ensure there are fixing and mounting points available.
9
Ensure the structure for mounting is safe:
i) Additional loading by solar PV system is considered;
ii) Wind loading is considered; and
iii) Waterproofing is not compromised during installation.
10
Ensure solar access:
i) Ensure location to be mounted will get maximum exposure
to sunlight; and
ii) Choose a location that is not shaded.
26
Check Box
Chapter 4
Solar PV System Installation Requirements
No.Design and Installation Checklist
11
12
13
Check Box
Ensure all PV modules connected to the same inverter
face the same direction.
Ensure PV modules are mounted at an incline (10 to 15 degrees
for framed modules, or as low as 3-5 degrees for unframed
modules) for self-cleaning.
Ensure sufficient ventilation space behind the PV array for
cooling purposes.
14
Ensure:
i) Cabling used meet sufficient current-carrying capacity
and are suitably rated for usage in the environment;
ii) DC cables are single-core and double-insulated; and
iii) Cable insulation on outdoor cables must withstand high
temperature and UV exposure for an estimated period
of more than 20 years.
Note that PVC and XLPE cables are inadequate on the DC side
and must not be exposed to the weather elements.
15
Determine if a Lightning Protection System is needed.
16
Ensure the PV module frame is earthed.
17
Finalise the Inverter and AC wiring system.
18
During installation:
i) PV system should be installed by qualified/experienced installers;
ii) Safety rules must be observed;
iii) Installer must wear PPE; and
iv) Only proper certified safety equipment can be used e.g. scaffolding,
stepladders, etc.
19
Cables must be properly connected, secured, and routed.
20
Ensure continuity and insulation tests are done.
21
Completion of testing and system commissioning.
22
Proper system, documentation/manual handover to clients.
27
5
Operations and
Maintenance
5.1
Operations of Solar PV Systems
The most practical indicator of the performance of the solar PV systems can be obtained
from the remote monitoring and data logging software supplied by most inverter
manufacturers.
The data logging software will record daily, monthly, and annual output for comparison of
the actual system performance against the expected system performance. See Figure
20 for typical performance monitoring displays.
Figure 20. Examples of performance monitoring displays (Courtesy of Phoenix Solar)
Solar PV systems require minimal maintenance, as they do not usually have moving
parts. However, routine maintenance is required to ensure the solar PV system will
continue to perform properly.
It is a good practice for contractors of solar PV systems to provide an operation &
maintenance (“O&M”) manual for the client. The manual should include basic system
data, test and commissioning data, O&M data, and warranty information.
28
Chapter 5
Operations and Maintenance
5.2
Recommended Preventive Maintenance Works
It is recommended that preventive inspection and maintenance works are carried out
every six to twelve months. The PV modules require routine visual inspection for signs
of damage, dirt build-up or shade encroachment. Solar PV system fixtures must be
checked for corrosion. This is to ensure that the solar PV system is safely secured.
While the inverter’s functionality can be remotely verified, only on-site inspection can
verify the state of lightning surge arrestors, cable connections, and circuit breakers.
The following table shows some recommendations on the preventive maintenance
works on the components and equipment, and the corresponding remedial actions to
be carried out by qualified personnel.
S/N
1
Components/EquipmentDescription
PV modules
Check for dust/debris
on surface of
PV module
Remedy/Action
Wipe clean. Do not
use any solvents
other than water
Check for physical
damage to any PV
module
Recommend
replacement
if found damaged
Check for loose cable
terminations between
PV modules, PV
arrays, etc.
Retighten
connection
Check for cable
conditions
Replace cable if
necessary
Check functionality,
e.g. automatic
disconnection upon
loss of grid power
supply
Recommend
replacement if
functionality fails
Check ventilation
condition
Clear dust and dirt
in ventilation system
Check for loose
cable terminations
Tighten connection
Check for abnormal
operating temperature
Recommend
replacement
2
PV inverter
29
Chapter 5
Operations and Maintenance
3
Replace cable if
necessary
Check for cable
conditions i.e. wear
and tear
Check cable terminals
for burnt marks, hot
spots or loose
connections
Tighten connections
or recommend
replacement
Check cable terminals
e.g. wear and tear
or loose connections
Tighten or
recommend
replacement
Check for warning
notices
Replace warning
notice if necessary
Check for physical
damage
Recommend
replacement
Check functionality
replacement
Recommend
6
Earthing of solar PV system
Check earthing cable
conditions
Recommend
replacement
Check the physical
earthing connection
Retighten
connection
4
Cabling
Junction boxes
5
Means of isolation
Check continuity of the
cable to electrical earth
Troubleshoot or
recommend replacement
7
Recommend
replacement
Bonding of the exposed
Check bonding cable
metallic structure of solar
conditions
PV system to lightning earth
Check physical bonding
connection
Check continuity of
the bonding to lightning
earth
30
Tighten connection
Troubleshoot or
recommend
replacement
A
Appendices
31
A
Appendix
A.1 ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA ACADEMY
Building name
:
Zero Energy Building @ BCA Academy
:
Building and Construction Authority (BCA)
Location
:
200 Braddell Road, Singapore 579700
Building type
:
Academic Institution
Completion
:
2009
Working groups
• Project architects
• Principal investigators
• Structural engineers
• M&E engineers
• Quantity surveyor
• Contractors
• PV design
• PV manufacturer
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
DP Architects Pte Ltd
National University of Singapore / SERIS
Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner (S. E. Asia) Pte Ltd
Beca Carter Hollings & Ferner (S. E. Asia) Pte Ltd
Davis Langdon & Seah Singapore Pte Ltd
ACP Construction Pte Ltd
Grenzone Pte Ltd
Various (7 manufacturers)
Type of PV integration
:
on Metal Roof, Canopy, Louver, Railing, Façade
Type of PV cell technology
:
Various (mc-Si, pc-Si, a-Si, HIT, CIGS)
PV area (m2)
:
1,540
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
190
Estimated energy output (kWh / yr)
:
207,000
PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year)
:
1,090
Photographs and information
courtesy of
:
BCA / Grenzone Pte Ltd
Owner
32
Appendix A.1
ZERO ENERGY BUILDING @ BCA ACADEMY
The Solar Photovoltaic System installed at BCA Academy’s Zero-Energy
Building (ZEB) consists of 12 systems with six systems connected to grid and
six standalone systems. Featuring different types of Solar PV technology and
mounting techniques, the ZEB @ BCA Academy’s Solar PV system is designed
to achieve zero-energy and for advance academic research on various PV
performances.
Figure A.1.1. Building exterior
Figure A.1.2. PV array view (PV Sunshade)
Figure A.1.3. PV array view (PV Main Roof)
Figure A.1.4. PV array view (PV Staircase
Facade)
33
A
Appendix
A.2 POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING)
Building name
:
POH ERN SHIH (Temple of Thanksgiving)
:
POH ERN SHIH
Location
:
9 Chwee Chian Road, Singapore 117488
Building type
:
Religious
Completion
:
2006 (Phase I)
• Project architects
:
Lee Coo Consultant Associates
• Structural engineers
:
KTP Consultants Pte Ltd
• M&E engineers
:
Squire Mech Pte Ltd
• Quantity surveyor
:
WT Partnership International Limited
• Contractors
:
Wee Hur Construction Pte Ltd
• PV design
:
Grenzone Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
Uni-Solar, Sharp, Mitsubishi
Type of PV integration
:
Standing Mounting Structure
Owner
Working groups
Type of PV cell technology
:
:
PV area (m2)
Amorphous Monocrystalline
silicon
silicon
36.1
39.2
Polycrystalline
silicon
84.7
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
2.232
5.250
11.340
Estimated energy output (kWh / yr)
:
2,566
6,036
13,038
PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year)
:
1,150
1,150
1,150
Photographs and information courtesy of
: Grenzone Pte Ltd
34
Appendix A.2
POH ERN SHIH (TEMPLE OF THANKSGIVING)
Figure A.2.1. Building exterior
Figure A.2.2. Building interior
The PV arrays are mounted on the rooftop with standing mounting structure,
allowing sufficient ventilation to improve PV performance. About 25% of
electrical power demand in the building are supplied by the solar PV system.
Figure A.2.3. PV array view
Figure A.2.4. PV array view
35
A
Appendix
A.3 313 SOMERSET CENTRAL
Building name
:
313 SOMERSET CENTRAL
:
Lend Lease Retail Investment 1 Pte Ltd
Location
:
313 Orchard Road, Singapore 238895
Building type
:
Shopping Mall
Completion
:
2009
• Project architects
:
Aedas Pte Ltd
• Structural engineers
:
Meinhardt Infrastructure Pte Ltd
• M&E engineers
:
Bescon Consulting Engineers Pte Ltd
• Quantity surveyor
:
WT Partnership Pte Ltd
• Contractors
:
Bovis Lend Lease Pte Ltd
• PV design
:
Grenzone Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
Various (4 manufacturers)
Type of PV integration
:
on Trellis and Metal Roof
Type of PV cell technology
:
Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, Micromorph
PV area (m2)
:
587
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
76
Owner
Working groups
Estimated energy output (kWh / year) :
87,381
PV Yield (kWh / kWp / year)
1,150
:
Photographs and information courtesy of
: Bovis Lend Lease
36
Appendix A.3
313 SOMERSET CENTRAL
313 Somerset Central is centrally located in the heart of Singapore’s famous
Orchard Road. The solar photovoltaic system consists of four PV arrays, with
a main PV array of 60 kWp mounted on the trellis, and three smaller arrays
featuring monocrystalline, polycrystalline and micromorph solar modules that
are accessible by visitors.
Figure A.3.1. Building exterior
Architect’s Impression of Somerset Central viewed from Orchard Road
Figure A.3.2. Building exterior
37
A
Appendix
A.4 Sentosa Cove
Building name
:
Private
:
Private
Location
:
Sentosa Cove, Singapore
Building type
:
Two-storey bungalow with basement
Completion
:
July 2008
• Project architects
:
Guz Architects
• M&E consultant
:
Herizal Fitri Pte Ltd
• PV design
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
• Main contractors
:
Sunho Construction Pte Ltd
Owner
Working groups
• Roofing contractor
•
:
Uni-Solar
Type of PV integration
:
Glued onto approved Fazonal metal roof
Type of PV cell technology
:
Flexible amorphous silicon
PV area (m2)
:
92
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
5.712
Estimated energy output kWh / yr)
:
7,100
PV Yield (kWh / kWp / yr)
:
1,250
Photographs and information
courtesy of
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd,
Guz Architects, and Sheet Metal International
38
PV manufacturer
Sheet Metal International
Appendix A.4
Sentosa Cove
This striking house stands out for its open layout, capped with twin curved roofs. The rear
roof has a turf lawn to keep it cool, while the front roof generates electricity with flexible
solar laminates, bonded unobtrusively on top. This configuration meets Sentosa Resort
Management’s strict guidelines for roof aesthetics, which do not generally permit bare
metal roofs on bungalow developments.
Thanks to the laminates’ light weight (less than 4kg/m2), the roof can make do with a
lighter and lower substructure cost than if it had to carry conventional clay tiles.
Figure A.4.1.
Twin curved roofs,
green grass and PV
Figure A.4.2.
Lightweight, flexible
laminates follow the
curved roof
Figure A.4.3.
Testing the Uni-Solar
laminates during
installation
39
A
Appendix
A.5 Marina Barrage
Building name
:
Marina Barrage
:
PUB, Singapore’s national water agency
Location
:
Singapore
Building type
:
Flood Control
Completion
:
2008
• Project architects
:
Architects Team 3 Pte Ltd
• Structural engineers
:
Koh Brothers Building & Civil Engineering
Contractor (Pte) Ltd
• PV design
:
Renewpowers Technologies Pte Ltd
• Building services
:
Cegelec Pte Ltd
• Contractors
:
Koh Brothers Building & Civil Engineering
Contractor (Pte) Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
SolarWorld Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
Type of PV integration
:
Roof Top
Type of PV cell technology
:
Monocrystalline silicon
PV area (m2)
:
1200
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
70
Estimated energy output (kWh / yr)
:
76,650
PV Yield (kWh / kWp/ yr)
:
1,095
Owner
Working groups
Photographs and information courtesy of
: PUB, Singapore’s national water agency
40
Appendix A.5
Marina Barrage
Marina Barrage spans the mouth of the Marina Channel, creating Singapore’s 15th
reservoir, and its first in the city.
The barrage creates a freshwater lake to boost Singapore’s water supply, acts as a tidal
barrier to prevent flooding in low-lying city areas, and keeps the water level consistent,
offering a venue for water-based activities in the heart of the city.
But more than an engineering showpiece, the barrage exemplifies the national water
agency’s commitment towards environmental and water sustainability.
One of Singapore’s largest commissioned solar PV system at a single site to date, Marina
Barrage’s solar park houses one of the largest collection of solar panels – 405 panels in
all – currently in operation in Singapore. Its 70kWp DC grid-tied solar PV system is the
first to be employed on such a large scale locally, and it comes with aesthetically arranged
solar panels (panels are arranged in nine arrays of 15 by three panels) on the barrage’s
green roof.
The solar panels generate
50% of utility grade electricity
for lighting and general
power in the visitor centre,
control room and offices. The
environmentally-friendly gridtied solar PV system does
not require batteries, hence
eliminating the costs for
battery replacement.
Figure A.5.1. Aerial view of
Marina Barrage
Figure A.5.2. Marina Barrage Solar Park
41
A
Appendix
A.6 Lonza Biologics
Building name
:
LBXS2
:
Lonza Biologics Tuas Pte Ltd
Location
:
Tuas, Singapore
Building type
:
Biotech factory and laboratory
Completion
:
May 2009
• Project architects
:
RSP Architects Planners & Engineers Pte Ltd
• M&E engineers
:
Jacobs Engineering Singapore Pte Ltd
• PV design
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
• Contractors
:
Bovis Lend Lease Pharmaceutical Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
REC (framed modules) and Solar-Fabrik (frameless
laminates)
Type of PV integration
:
Roof mounted on Bluescope Lysaght KlipLok metal roof
Type of PV cell technology
:
Polycrystalline silicon
PV area (m2)
:
1,330
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
181
Estimated energy output (kWh/yr)
:
217,000
PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr)
:
1,200
Photographs and information
courtesy of
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
and Lonza Biologics Tuas Pte Ltd
Owner
Working groups
42
Appendix A.6
Lonza Biologics
Figure A.6.1. Building exterior (Rendering by RSP Architects Planners &
Engineers Pte Ltd)
The curved laboratory roof of the Lonza Biologic’s LBXS2 factory offers prominent
visibility to maximise public awareness for a 181kWp solar PV system on an industrial
building. The bulk of the PV array consists of 744 pieces of REC210 modules, while
the flatter upper section of the roof is covered with 104 SF130/2 frameless laminates
from Solar-Fabrik. Without frames to trap water at shallow installation angles, these
laminates will avoid dirt accumulation.
Roof clamps were specially engineered to attach the PV module rails to the KlipLok roof
seams without any penetrations. Lonza Biologics was a recipient of one of the inaugural
Solar Pioneer grants under EDB’s Solar Capability Scheme.
Figure A.6.2. Modules installed on the
6o-16o slope
Figure A.6.3. Installing the REC modules
43
A
Appendix
A.7 Zero Energy House
Building name
:
Zero Energy House
:
Private
Location
:
District 15, Singapore
Building type
:
Residential, 21/2-storey semi-detached house
Completion (renovation)
:
April 2008
• Project architects
:
Art & Architecture Collaborative
• Structural engineers
:
Portwood & Associates
• PV design
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
• Contractors
:
MCL Construction & Engineering Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Phoenix Solar
Type of PV integration
:
Roof mounted on metal roof
Type of PV cell technology
:
amorphous silicon and micromorph silicon thin films
PV area (m )
:
120
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
8.58
Estimated energy output (kWh/year)
:
12,000
PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr)
:
1,400
Owner
Working groups
2
Photographs and information courtesy of
: Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
44
Appendix A.7
Zero Energy House
This 1960s semi-detached house was converted into Singapore’s first modern zero-energy
home by reducing solar heat gain, improving natural ventilation and adding a rooftop solar
PV system, which generates more electricity than the 6-person household consumes.
The PV modules are mounted on rails that are clamped to the seams of the aluminium
Kalzip roof without any roof penetrations. As an important added benefit, the PV modules
shade the roof, keeping the attic rooms much cooler than they would be under a roof fully
exposed to the sun.
Figure A.7.1. Building roof with two types of PV module
Figure A.7.2. West roof flank with micromorph PV modules
45
A
Appendix
A.8Tampines Grande
Building name
:
Tampines Grande
:
City Developments Ltd
Location
:
Tampines, Singapore
Building type
:
Office building
Completion
:
May 2009
• Project architects
:
Architects 61 Pte Ltd
• M&E engineers
:
Conteem Engineers Pte Ltd
• PV design
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
• Contractors
:
Dragages Singapore Pte Ltd / BYME Singapore
• PV manufacturer
:
Suntech (rooftop) and Schott Solar (BIPV)
Type of PV integration
:
Roof mounted and Building Integrated façade
Type of PV cell technology
:
Monocrystalline silicon and amorphous silicon thin film BIPV
PV area (m )
:
934
PV system peak power (kWp)
:
107
Estimated energy output (kWh/yr)
:
120,000
PV Yield (kWh/kWp/yr)
:
1,200
Photographs and information
courtesy of
:
Phoenix Solar Pte Ltd
and City Developments Ltd
Owner
Working groups
2
46
Appendix A.8
Tampines Grande
101kWp of monocrystalline PV modules form the main rooftop PV array on Towers 1 and
2, while the west façade of Tower 2 has 6kWp of BIPV comprising 40 large, custom-built
amorphous silicon thin film modules.
At the time of completion, this was Singapore’s largest PV system, and the first
commercial application of a thin film BIPV façade.
The building also boasts a solar air-conditioning system powered by solar thermal
collectors.
Tampines Grande was a recipient of one of the inaugural Solar Pioneer grants under
EDB’s Solar Capability Scheme.
Figure A.8.1. 6kWp BIPV façade on Tower 2
Figure A.8.2. Partially completed PV array
Figure A.8.3. Aerial view of both towers
47
A
Appendix
A.9 HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS
at Serangoon North Precinct
Building Name
:
HDB Apartment Blocks at Serangoon North Precinct
Owner
:
Ang Mo Kio- Yio Chu Kang Town Council
Location
:
Serangoon North Avenue 3 Block 548 to 554
and 550A (Multi-storey Carpark)
Building type
:
Residential
Completion
:
2008
• Contractors
:
King Wan Construction Pte Ltd &
Asiatic Engineering Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
Sunset Energietechnik GmbH
Type of PV integration
:
Roof top
Type of PV cell technology
:
Mono-crystalline silicon
Precinct PV area (m2)
:
667.61
Working groups
Precinct PV system peak power (kWp) :
75.75
Estimated energy output (kWh / yr)
:
80,300
PV Yield (kWh / kWp/yr)
:
1,060
PV Photographs and information courtesy of
: HDB
48
Appendix A.9
HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS
at Serangoon North Precinct
The Serangoon North Precinct consists of
five blocks of 16 storey and two blocks of
nine storey residential apartments and a multi
storey car park (MSCP). Sixty-nine pieces of
solar PV panels are mounted at the rooftop
of each residential block and 22 pieces of the
panel at the staircase roof of the MSCP.
Figure A.9.1. Typical rooftop PV array layout at Serangoon North Precinct
49
A
Appendix
A.10HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS
at Wellington Circle Precinct
Building Name
:
HDB Apartment Blocks at Wellington Circle Precinct
Owner
:
Sembawang Town Council
Location
:
Wellington Circle 508A-C, 509A-B, 510A-B & 508 (MSCP)
Building type
:
Residential
Completion
:
2008
• Contractors
:
King Wan Construction Pte Ltd &
Asiatic Engineering Pte Ltd
• PV manufacturer
:
Sunset Energietechnik GmbH
Type of PV integration
:
Roof top
Type of PV cell technology
:
Mono-crystalline silicon
Precinct PV area (m2)
:
667.61
Working groups
Precinct PV system peak power (kWp) :
75.75
Estimated energy output (kWh / yr)
:
80,300
PV Yield (kWh / kWp/ yr)
:
1,060
Photographs and information courtesy of
: HDB
50
Appendix A.10
HDB APARTMENT BLOCKS
at Wellington Circle Precinct
The Wellington Circle Precinct consists
of seven blocks of 12 storey residential
apartments and a MSCP. Sixty-nine pieces
of solar PV panels are mounted at the rooftop
of each residential block and 22 pieces of the
panel at the staircase roof of the MSCP.
Figure A.10.1. Typical rooftop PV array layout at Wellington Circle Precinct
51
B
Appendix
B. Engaging a Licensed
Electrical Worker
1.
Engaging a Licensed Electrical Worker (LEW)
1.1
There are three classes of LEWs: Licensed Electrician, Licensed Electrical Technician, and
Licensed Electrical Engineer. The various classes of LEWs are authorised to design, install,
repair, maintain, operate, inspect and test electrical installations according to the conditions
stated below:
Class of LEW
Electrician
Electrical Technician
Electrical Engineer
Approved Load
Voltage Level
Not exceeding 45 kVA
1000V & below
Not exceeding 150 kVA
(Design); not exceeding 500 kVA
(Operation)
1000V & below
No limit
Subject to license conditions
1.2
The Singapore Standard for electrical safety applicable to solar PV Systems is set out in
the Code of Practice for Electrical Installations (Singapore Standard CP5:2008), which is
published by SPRING Singapore. The LEW whom you appoint to carry out or supervise the
electrical works associated with your PV system will be responsible for the compliance
with the relevant safety standards and requirements. 1.3
You can search for LEWs and their contact particulars at the following EMA website:
http://elise.ema.gov.sg
1.4
For enquiries on LEWs, you can contact EMA’s Electricity Inspectorate Branch at:
Tel: 6835 8060
Email: [email protected]
52
Appendix B.1
Engaging a Licensed Electrical Worker
2
Guide for consumers – Installation of Solar PV Systems
53
C
Appendix
C.1 CONTACT INFORMATION
For enquiries on the following matters pertaining to Solar PV systems, please contact:
(1)
Buildings issues
Building And Construction Authority (BCA)
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 1800-3425222 (1800-DIAL BCA)
(2)
Development Planning Control
– Conserved Buildings
Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)
Building Conservation
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6329 3355
(3)
Development Planning Control
– Non-conserved Buildings
Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA)
Non-conserved buildings
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6223 4811
(4)
Electricity Generation Licences
Energy Market Authority (EMA)
Economic Regulation & Licensing Department
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6835 8000
(5)
Licensed Electrical Workers
(“LEWs”)
Energy Market Authority (EMA)
Electricity Inspectorate Branch
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6835 8060
(6)
Electricity market rules,
market registration process,
and market charges
Energy Market Company (EMC)
Market Administration Team
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6779 3000
(7)
Connection to the power grid
SP Services Ltd (SPS)
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6823 8283 / 6823 8284
(8)
Connection to the power grid
SP PowerGrid Ltd (SPPG)
Email: [email protected]
Tel: 6823 8572
54
D
Appendix
D.1 Solar Capability Scheme (SCS)
The Economic Development Board (EDB) unveiled the Solar Capability
Scheme to spur demand and build up expertise for this young but growing
field. The scheme – the latest by Clean Energy Programme Office (CEPO) –
seeks to strengthen critical capabilities of companies engaged in activities
such as engineering, architecture and system integration through increased
implementation of solar energy technologies by lead users in Singapore.
Agency
:
EDB
Quantum
:
$20 Million (Overall); $1 Million per project or up to 40% of
total capital cost of solar technology.
Target Group
:
Engineering;
Architecture;
System Integration
(With implementation of solar energy technologies)
For Reading
http://www.edb.gov.sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/news/articles/
cepo_launches_solar.html
:
http://www.edb.gov.sg/edb/sg/en_uk/index/news/articles/
Award_Ceremony_for_Solar_Testbeds.html
For Details
:
http://www.edb.gov.sg/etc/medialib/downloads/industries.
Par.98811.File.tmp/Solar%20Capability%20Scheme%20Factsheet.pdf
55
D
Appendix
D.2 Market Development Fund (MDF)
The MDF seeks to incentivise the use of clean and renewable energy
resources among non-residential consumers and developers by offsetting
the market charges and related costs associated with selling clean and
renewable energy into the power grid. This will help to promote energy
efficiency as well as help in the market integration of innovative clean and
renewable energy resources.
Agency
:
Energy Market Authority (EMA)
Quantum
:
$5 million; $50,000 over a span of 5 years or 90% of incurred
market charges for approved projects, whichever is lower.
Target Group
:
Non-residential consumers and developers who choose to sell
excess electricity generated from clean and renewable energy
technologies to the power grid.
For Details
:
http://www.ema.gov.sg/index.php?option=com_content&view=artic
le&id=125&Itemid=141
56
D
Appendix
D.3 Green Mark Scheme
The Green Mark Scheme was launched to promote environmental awareness
in the construction and real estate sectors. It is a benchmarking scheme
that aims to achieve a sustainable built environment by incorporating best
practices in environmental design and construction, and the adoption of
green building technologies.
Agency
:
Building and Construction Authority (BCA)
Target Group
:
Developers
Designers
Builders
For Reading
:
http://www.greenmark.sg
http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/green_mark_buildings.html
For Details
:
http://www.bca.gov.sg/greenmark/others/gmtc.pdf
57
D
Appendix
D.4 Green Mark Gross Floor Area
(GM-GFA) Incentive Scheme
To encourage the private sector to develop buildings that attain higher tier
Green Mark ratings (i.e. Green Mark Platinum or Green Mark GoldPLUS),
BCA and the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) have introduced a set
of Gross Floor Area (GFA) incentives on 29 Apr 2009. For developments
attaining Green Mark Platinum or GoldPLUS, URA will grant additional floor
area over and above the Master Plan Gross Plot Ratio (GPR) control.
Agency
:
BCA and URA
Target Group
:
All new private developments, redevelopments and
reconstruction developments submitted on or after the
effective date.
For Details
:
http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/gmgfa.html
58
D
Appendix
D.5 $100 million Green Mark Incentive
Scheme for existing buildings
(GMIS-EB)
The GMIS-EB aims to encourage private building owners of existing
buildings to undertake improvements and/or retrofits to achieve substantial
improvement in energy efficiency. It provides a cash incentive that cofunds up to 35% (capped at $1.5 million) of the upgrading/retrofitting costs
for energy efficiency improvement in their existing buildings.
Agency
:
Target Group
:
BCA
Building owners/developers of private existing nonresidential developments that is centrally air-conditioned,
with gross floor area of 2,000 sqm above e.g. energy
intensive buildings such as shopping malls, hotels, office
buildings, hospitals, and other centrally air-conditioned
buildings.
For Details
: http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/gmiseb.html
59
D
Appendix
D.6 Enhanced $20 million Green
Mark Incentive Scheme for new buildings (GMIS-NB)
The GMIS-NB is to help accelerate the adoption of environmentallyfriendly green building technologies and building design practices. The
enhanced scheme offers cash incentives.
Agency
:
BCA
Target Group
:
Developers, building owners, project architects and M&E
engineers who make efforts to achieve at least a BCA Green
Mark Gold rating or higher in the design and construction of
new buildings.
For Details
:
http://www.bca.gov.sg/GreenMark/GMIS.html
60
Disclaimer
The information in this handbook is subject to change or revision, to adapt to the continual development and
evolvement of the electricity and building and construction industries and is not a substitute for any law, regulation,
code of practice, standard of performance, Market Rules or Building Control Act which may apply to the said industries
in Singapore. It does not in any way bind the Energy Market Authority (“EMA”) and the Building and Construction
Authority (“BCA”) to grant any approval or official permission for any matters, including but not limited to the grant
of any exemption nor to the terms of any exemption. Both EMA and BCA reserve the right to change its policies
and/or to amend any information in this handbook without prior notice. Persons who may be in doubt about how the
information in this handbook may affect them or their commercial activities are advised to seek independent legal
advice or any other professional advice as they may deem appropriate. Both Authorities assume no responsibility or
liability for any consequences (financial or otherwise) suffered directly or indirectly by persons who have entered into
commercial activities upon reliance on any information in this document. 61
Energy Market Authority
991G Alexandra Road, #01-29
Singapore 119975
Tel: (65) 6835 8000
Fax: (65) 6835 8020
ISBN: 978-981-08-4462-2
62
Building and Construction Authority
5 Maxwell Road
#16-00 Tower Block MND Complex
Singapore 069110
Main Line: 1800-3425222 (1800-DIAL BCA)
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