An Introduction to SCADA Fundamentals and Implementation Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition Electric power generation, transmission and distribution: Electric utilities detect current flow and line voltage, to monitor the operation of circuit breakers, and to take sections of the power grid online or offline. Buildings, facilities and environments: Facility managers use SCADA to control HVAC, refrigeration units, lighting and entry systems. Manufacturing: manage parts inventories for just-in-time manufacturing, regulate industrial automation and robots, and monitor process and quality control. Mass transit: regulate electricity to subways, trams and trolley buses; to automate traffic signals for rail systems; to track and locate trains and buses; and to control railroad crossing gates. Water and sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and regulate water flow, reservoir levels, pipe pressure and other factors. Traffic signals: regulates traffic lights, controls traffic flow and detects out-oforder signals. SCADA control POWER DISTRIBUTIO N SYSTEM WATER DISTRIBUTIO N SYSTEM Remote Telemetry Unit (RTU) SCADA MASTER UNITS HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACE Remote Telemetry Unit (RTU) PROCESS PLANT TRANSPORT SYSTEM PETROCHEMICAL PLANT 16 Digital i/o SITE monitoring Time Sync 2 Analogue inputs Pager Notification 2 control outputs 1 RS232 port Remote Telemetry Units (RTU) 10 RouteT LAN Sites 1-8 Rs232 SNMP monitoring Dial-up remote Access Alarms from remote equipment DPS TELECOM SCADA SYSTEMS A SCADA system performs four functions: 1. Data acquisition 2. Networked data communication 3. Data presentation 4. Control These functions are performed by four kinds of SCADA components: 1. Sensors (either digital or analogue) and control relays that directly interface with the managed system. 2. Remote telemetry units (RTUs). These are small computerized units deployed in the field at specific sites and locations. RTUs serve as local collection points for gathering reports from sensors and delivering commands to control relays. 3. SCADA master units. These are larger computer consoles that serve as the central processor for the SCADA system. Master units provide a human interface to the system and automatically regulate the managed system in response to sensor inputs. 4. The communications network that connects the SCADA master unit to the RTUs in the field. Data Acquisition • SCADA system needs to monitor hundreds or thousands of sensors. Sensors measure: 1. Inputs and outputs e.g. water flowing into a reservoir (input), valve pressure as water is released from the reservoir (output). 2. Discrete inputs (or digital input) e.g. whether equipment is on or off, or tripwire alarms, like a power failure at a critical facility. 3. Analogue inputs: where exact measurement is important e.g. to detect continuous changes in a voltage or current input, to track fluid levels in tanks, voltage levels in batteries, temperature and other factors that can be measured in a continuous range of input. • For most analogue factors, there is a normal range defined by a bottom and top level e.g. temperature in a server room between 15 and 25 degrees Centigrade. If the temperature goes outside this range, it will trigger a threshold alarm. • In more advanced systems, there are four threshold alarms for analogue sensors, defining Major Under, Minor Under, Minor Over and Major Over alarms. Data Communication A communications network is required to monitor multiple systems from a central location. •TREND: put SCADA data on Ethernet and IP over SONET. • SECURITY: Keep data on closed LAN/WANs without exposing sensitive data to the open Internet. • Encode data in protocol format (use open, standard protocols and protocol mediation) • Sensors and control relays can’t generate or interpret protocol communication - a remote telemetry unit (RTU) is needed to provide an interface between the sensors and the SCADA network. • RTU encodes sensor inputs into protocol format and forwards them to the SCADA master; • RTU receives control commands in protocol format from the master and transmits electrical signals to the appropriate control relays. Data Presentation SCADA systems report to human operators over a master station, HMI (Human-Machine Interface) or HCI (HumanComputer Interface). SCADA master station has several different functions: • continuously monitors all sensors and alerts the operator when there is an “alarm” • presents a comprehensive view of the entire managed system, • presents more detail in response to user requests •performs data processing on information gathered from sensors • maintains report logs and summarizes historical trends. Selection of RTU’s RTUs need to: • communicate with all on-site equipment • survive an industrial environment. Rugged construction and ability to withstand extremes of temperature and humidity (it needs to be the most reliable element in your facility). • have sufficient capacity to support the equipment at a site (though should support expected growth over a reasonable period of time). • have a secure, redundant power supply for 24/7 working, support battery power and, ideally, two power inputs. • have redundant communication ports e.g. secondary serial port or internal modem to keep the RTU online even if the LAN fails (multiple communication ports easily support a LAN migration strategy) • have nonvolatile memory (NVRAM) for storing software and/or firmware. New firmware downloadable over LAN to keep RTU capabilities up to date without excessive site visits • control local systems by themselves (Intelligent control) according to programmed responses to sensor inputs • have a real-time clock to accurately date/time stamp reports • have a watchdog timer to ensure that the RTU restarts after a power failure. Selection of SCADA Master A SCADA master should display information in the most useful ways to human operators and intelligently regulate managed systems. It should : • have flexible, programmable soft controls to respond to sensor inputs • allow programming for soft alarms (reports of complex events that track combinations of sensor inputs and date/time statements). • automatically page or email directly to repair technicians and provide detailed information display in plain English, with a complete description of what activity is happening and how to manage it. • have tools to filter out nuisance alarms (to prevents operators from loosing confidence and stop responding even to critical alarms) • support multiple backup masters, in separate locations (primary SCADA master fails, a second master on the network automatically takes over, with no interruption of monitoring and control functions) • support multiple open protocols to safeguard the SCADA system against unplanned obsolescence.