BAMBOO Bamboo is a tribe of flowering perennial evergreen plants. They are some of the fastest-growing plants in the world. They are of notable economic and cultural significance in South Asia, Southeast Asia and East Asia, being used for building materials, as a food source, and as a versatile raw product. Bamboo species are found in diverse climates, from cold mountains to hot tropical regions. There are over 1600 species of bamboo, 64 percent of which are native to Southeast Asia. 33 percent grows in Latin America, and the rest in Africa and Oceania. Bamboo is one of the fastest-growing plants on Earth, with reported growth rates of 100 cm (39 in) in 24 hours. However, the growth rate is dependent on local soil and climatic conditions, as well as species, and a more typical growth rate for many commonly cultivated bamboos in temperate climates is in the range of 3–10 centimeters (1.2–3.9 in) per day during the growing period. Primarily growing in regions of warmer climates, vast fields existed in what is now Asia. Some of the largest timber bamboo can grow over 30 m (98 ft) tall, and be as large as 15–20 cm (5.9–7.9 in) in diameter. Bamboo forest in Taiwan TYPES There are two types of bamboo with approximately 1500 species. There are two main forms: the economically and ecologically important woody bamboos and the understory herbaceous bamboos. Molecular analysis of the suggests that there are 3-5 major lineages of bamboo. Four major lineages are recognized: temperate woody, paleotropical woody, neotropical woody and herbaceous bamboos. USES Bamboo is useful for different things at different ages: <30 days it is good for eating 6-9 months for baskets 2-3 years for bamboo boards or laminations 3-6 years for construction >6 years bamboo gradually loses strength up to 12 years old Bamboo, like true wood, is a natural composite material with high strength-to-weight ratio useful for structures. In its natural form, bamboo as a construction material is traditionally associated with the cultures of South Asia, East Asia and the South Pacific, to some extent in Central and South America. Bamboo's tensile strength has been essential in the development of bridges. In China and India, bamboo was used to hold up simple suspension bridges, either by making cables of split bamboo or twisting whole culms (individual bamboo stems) of sufficiently pliable bamboo together. Using only the exterior part of the bamboo, which is four times as strong as the interior, the Chinese created tension cables up to 120 meters long. Bamboo bridges were also by the Incas in South America. The Chinese invented suspensio n bridges using bamboo to cross rivers. Bamboo also has a long history of use in buildings, being common to the vernacular architecture of China, Southeast Asia and Central and South America. The Chinese could span up to ten meters with their corbelling technology, and bamboo has been used extensively all over Indonesia, especially in the Celebes Islands. Although they have a great history of building with bamboo, today the Japanese use it only for their traditional tea houses. Bamboo Roofing A number of cultures have used bamboo for roofing materials. The Chinese used bamboo for roofs with the ends covered with round tiles. In the Philippines, roofs of interlocking split bamboo are created with the part receiving the water being the soft inner surface of the bamboo. An excellent system utilizes bamboo rafters with bamboo boards. This is plastered on both sides, and fired clay tiles are used to waterproof. Besides structures built of whole bamboo, truss systems have been developed using flat bamboo strips which are connected with bolts. Bamboo is unique in that it is strong in both tension and compression. While tensile strength remains the same throughout the age of the bamboo plant, compressive strength increases as it gets older. Bamboo has been used as reinforcement for concrete in those areas where it is plentiful. ADVANTAGES •Waterproof •High strength-to-weight ratio •High tensile strength •Strong in compression •Good for earthquake-prone areas This technology creates a one-meter square grid of punched holes in the stone wall, which is then covered with a 10 cm mesh of bamboo on the inside and outside. This net is secured to the wall by means of 12gauge gabion wire, (a form of riprap contained in a wire cage that is very useful in erosion control.), which is inserted through the holes and fastened strongly. EXAMPLE In the Philippines, the nipa hut, also known as bahay kubo, is a fairly typical example of the most basic sort of indigenous housing where bamboo is used; the walls are split and woven bamboo, and bamboo slats and poles may be used as its support. The native house has traditionally been constructed with bamboo tied together and covered with a thatched roof using nipa/anahaw leaves. Nipa huts were the native houses of the indigenous people of the Philippines before the Spaniards arrived. They are still used today, especially in rural areas. Different architectural designs are present among the different ethnolinguistic groups in the country, although all of them conform to being stilt houses, similar to those found in neighboring PRESENT DAY MODERNIZED EXAMPLE This is a student humanitarian design project on the Thai Burmese border: it combines beautifully designed (and super efficient) vernacular-inspired architecture with social responsibility in aiding the plight of Karen refugee orphans. Five students in Thailand are using architecture to make new lives for 24 orphans by providing them with homes to call their own. They built dormitories for Karen refugee children in the village of Noh Bo on the Thai-Burmese border. The six woven bamboo huts, dubbed Soe Ker Tie, or The Butterfly Huts because of their “winged” appearance The huts are pre-fabricated and assembled on site with sustainability in mind. Most of the bamboo used is harvested locally and woven in the same way that is traditional to the area. The special flapped roof of the Soe Ker Tie House is conducive to natural ventilation. Each hut is raised above ground level preventing issues that could arise due to moisture and decay.