Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16 (1), 207-214
Risks and economic consequences of introducing
classical swine fever into the Netherlands by
feeding swill to swine
H.S. Horst, R.B.M. Huirne & A.A. DLikhuizen
Department of Farm Management, Wageningen Agricultural University, Hollandseweg 1,
6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands
An effective animal disease prevention and eradication programme is of great
importance for meat-exporting countries such as the Netherlands. If a serious
outbreak of disease w e r e to occur, the eradication measures required by the
European Union and a possible ban on meat exports would have severe economic
consequences. However, historical and experimental information on which these
programmes can be based is scarce. Furthermore, until recently, an integrated
approach which combined the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with
economic consequences was lacking.
This paper describes a project based on such ah integrated approach. The project
covered the elicitation of expert knowledge and the development of the virus
introduction risk simulation model (VIRiS). VIRiS integrates objective and
subjective information concerning risks and consequences of virus introduction,
and thus presents policy-makers with a useful tool for the evaluation of existing
prevention programmes and possible alternatives. VIRiS is illustrated for classical
swine fever. A comparison is made between the current situation and a
hypothetical situation where the risk factor 'swill feeding' is completely
Classical swine fever (hog cholera) - Economics - Risk analysis - Simulation modelling Swill - Swine - The Netherlands.
control programmes are of great importance
government and private industry (14).
The export of livestock and meat is very important for the
Dutch livestock industry. In 1 9 9 4 , the export of livestock
products represented a value of over US$4.5 billion ( 1 3 ) .
Outbreaks of classical swine fever (CSF) (hog cholera) and
other Office International des Epizooties (OIE) List A diseases,
such as foot and mouth disease (FMD) and swine vesicular
disease (SVD), are likely to cause export bans and are
therefore of major concern to the Netherlands and other
meat-exporting countries. European Union (EU) regulations
demand strict adherence to a prescribed set of actions for the
eradication of CSF outbreaks: measures include the
establishment of surveillance zones with complete standstill of
all animals, stamping-out of infected herds, etc. Outbreaks
would clearly have a serious economic impact, even if export
bans were not enforced. Hence, adequate prevention and
Concerted action by the government and private industry in
the Netherlands has resulted in a research project aimed at
gaining more insight into the risk and economic
consequences of virus introduction into the Netherlands.
Extensive research into contagious animal diseases has been
conducted, including risk assessment studies aimed at
evaluating the risks associated with the introduction of certain
single commodities. However, an integrated model which
combines the various aspects of outbreaks and risks with
economic consequences, and which takes into account a
number of risk factors instead of focusing on one single
commodity, was still lacking. Therefore, a general outline for
such an integrated approach was developed and described
(7). Using the integrated approach, a simulation model was
developed to evaluate the process of virus introduction and to
identify the key factors. This model provides a useful tool for
policy-makers to maximise the efficiency of existing disease
prevention programmes and to evaluate possible alternatives.
The model, called the virus introduction risk simulation
model (VTRiS), is based on historical and experimental data,
where available and applicable. However, outbreaks of CSF
(and other notifiable diseases) occur irregularly in time, place
and magnitude, making it very difficult to derive general
properties and predictive values. Therefore, expert knowledge
was required and was used as additional information.
The research project was aimed at the development of a
general model, to be applied to several OIE List A diseases.
This paper illustrates the application of this approach for CSF
and presents an overview of the project, covering both the
elicitation of expert knowledge about the factors which
influence virus introduction, and the development of the
simulation model VIRiS. By way of illustration, VFRiS results
for CSF are presented, with special attention given to the
influence that swill feeding has on the expected number of
outbreaks. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the
approach and application of the results.
Materials and methods
Input for virus introduction risk simulation
Quantitative information on recent outbreaks of major
diseases is stored in databases such as the Animal Disease
Notification System of the EU. However, changing
circumstances such as free trade within the EU, the new trade
contacts with Eastern European countries, ongoing
developments in animal health programmes and animal
health legislation, etc., make it difficult to base assumptions
and estimates on these data.
Another possible information source is research. Many
researchers (2, 1 1 , 1 5 ) have conducted work in the area of
contagious animal diseases, but most of their findings are
qualitative only and do not deal with the first introduction of
virus into a country (i.e., the cause of a primary outbreak).
Despite this lack of 'objective' information, decisions
concerning eradication and prevention of outbreaks must still
be made. Such decisions rely on the expertise (a combination
of experience and understanding of
circumstances) of those working in this area, which is a useful
and necessary addition to the data available from research and
All three sources of information (databases, research and
expert information) were used to provide sufficient
quantitative information for the simulation model VIRiS.
Using sensitivity analysis, the simulation model could be of
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16 (1)
use in evaluating the relevance of this uncertain knowledge
for the decision-making process.
Workshop experiment
To elicit and quantify expert information, workshops were
organised and were attended by 4 3 experts: an expert was
defined as a person who has working experience with the
Dutch prevention and eradication programmes concerning
the diseases under study, which included researchers,
policy-makers, field veterinarians etc. During the workshops,
participants were asked to complete a computerised
questionnaire. The questionnaire was self-explanatory in
order to minimise the interaction of the participants (with
each other or with the workshop facilitators). Questions
concerned the relative importance of risk factors which might
cause virus introduction, the expected number of outbreaks
in European countries, and the efficiency of the disease
prevention and eradication systems in these countries. The
participants chose the disease on which they thought
themselves to be most knowledgeable: questions were
answered in relation to this disease only.
For pragmatic reasons, European countries were divided
according to geographic and trade criteria into the following
five groups (all respondents considered all groups):
- Neighbouring countries (Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg)
- Southern Europe (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain)
- Central Europe (Austria, France, Switzerland)
- Eastern Europe
- 'Islands' (Ireland, Scandinavia, United Kingdom)
Relative importance of risk factors
Risk factors were defined as possible causes for virus
introduction: selection was based on literature and earlier
in-depth interviews with experts. The technique of conjoint
analysis (CA) was used to estimate the relative importance of
these factors. CA is widely used in market research to elicit the
subjective views and preferences of consumers ( 4 ) . The
technique is based on the assumption that a product or event
can be evaluated as a package of characteristics or attributes
and that the-overall judgement of the package is based on the
individual importance of each of these attributes. CA starts
with the overall judgements of respondents on a set of
alternatives (i.e., combinations of attributes) and breaks these
overall judgements down into the contribution of each.
attribute, by using ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression
analysis. Horst et al. (8) conducted a small experiment using
the CA technique to elicit expert knowledge on the relative
importance of risk factors concerning the introduction of
contagious animal diseases. The experiment yielded
promising results, and was used as a guide and framework for
the workshop experiment described in this paper. In this
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16 (1)
experiment, respondents were presented with a number of
profiles on their computer screen (one profile at a time) and
were asked to give a score, on a scale of 0 to 100, for the risk of
each profile. These profiles were (theoretical) combinations of
risk factors which could be either present or not present, as
illustrated below.
for all country groups, was later omitted for the same reason.
According to the participating experts, the import of animal
products is only a significant risk factor when considering
virus introduction from the countries surrounding the
Netherlands and the countries of southern Europe.
Expected number of outbreaks
Example of a question
based on conjoint
Imagine the following situation. What score would you give
this combination of risk factors as a means of introducing CSF
virus from Belgium, Germany or Luxembourg into the
Netherlands? Give a score between 0 and 100. The higher the
score the greater the risk.
Risk factor combination:
- Import of livestock
- Import of animal products
not present
- Feeding of imported swill
- Tourists
- Retarning trucks
not present
- Wildlife
not present
- Air currents (airborne transmission)
not present.
Using several statistical techniques (including cluster and
regression analysis), the individual importance of the risk
factors was calculated. Results for CSF, the disease for which
the greatest number of participants responded (19 out of 4 3
participants), are presented in Table I. For all country groups,
'import of livestock' was evaluated as the most important risk
factor. Other important factors were returning (uncleaned)
trucks and the feeding of imported swill. 'Wildlife' and 'air
currents' were only considered for the group of countries
bordering the Netherlands (neighbouring countries): 'air
currents' proved to be an insignificant factor and was not
considered for further analysis. 'Tourists', a factor considered
Table I
Relative importance of classical swine fever risk factors
Risk factor
Import of livestock
Animal products
Returning trucks
Neighbouring countries:
Southern Europe:
Central Europe:
Eastern Europe:
Neighbouring Southern Central Eastern 'Islands'
Europe Europe Europe
Belgium. Germany and Luxembourg
Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain
Austria, France and Switzerland
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia
Ireland, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom
not significant
In simulating virus introduction from European countries
into the Netherlands, an important input parameter is the
expected number of outbreaks in the exporting countries. It
was expected that such estimates would be difficult to make
for the experts and therefore a method was chosen which
enabled expression of uncertainty. This method, called ELI
(elicitation), is a graphically oriented computer programme
which facilitates the quantification of subjective knowledge
about uncertain quantities. The method is based on the
establishment of probability density functions (PDF) which
reflect the opinion of a respondent. The top of a PDF indicates
the best estimate made by the respondent: the dispersion
corresponds with the uncertainty about this best estimate. ELI
was developed and described by Van Lenthe ( 1 7 ) . Table II
presents some results of this part of the workshop experiment.
The experts were asked to estimate the number of outbreaks
within a five-year period. Table II gives an indication of their
'best estimates' (in fact, the numbers represent the maximum
likelihood estimates [MLE] of these best estimates). According
to the experts, Eastern Europe may expect the highest number
of outbreaks, followed by the countries surrounding the
Netherlands. These results concur with reports on the actual
number of outbreaks over the past ten years ( 5 ) .
High risk period
The high risk period (HRP) defines the period in which the
virus is already present in a country but not yet detected or
under control. The length of this period is one of the most
crucial parameters which determine the magnitude of an
outbreak. During the HRP, the virus might be transferred to
another country, and a lengthier HRP will obviously increase
the total risk of virus introduction from the affected country
into another country. The HRP can be divided into two
periods, namely:
- HRP1 : starts when a first animal is infected, and ends when
an infected animal is detected.
- HRP2: starts with first detection, and ends when all
measures are considered effective.
The length of HRP1 depends on the alertness and motivation
of farmers and veterinarians. HRP2 is determined by the
efficiency of the animal health system of the affected country.
After HRP2 has ended, the affected region is no longer of risk
to other areas.
The participating experts were asked to provide a three-point
estimate (minimum, most likely and maximum expected
length) for the length of both HRPs. This estimate was
Rev. sei tech. Off. int. Epiz, 16 (1]
Table II
Expected number of classical swine fever outbreaks in a five-year period, and the maximum likelihood estimates for duration of the high risk period
Number of outbreaks
MLE for HRP1 (days)
MLE for HRP2 (days)
Neighbouring countries:
Southern Europe:
Central Europe:
Eastern Europe:
Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg
Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain
Austria, France and Switzerland
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia
Ireland, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom
The Netherlands
maximum likelihood estimate
high risk period
requested for all groups and for the Netherlands. Table II
presents the MLEs for the estimate of the most likely duration
of both HRPs. The lengthiest HRPs are expected in Eastern
Europe. Short HRPs are expected for the United Kingdom,
Ireland and Scandinavia ('Islands') and for the Netherlands.
To interpret the results, a comparison was made with findings
of Terpstra (16), who established HRPs for recent outbreaks
in Europe ( 1 9 8 6 - 1 9 9 6 ) . The estimates of the experts were all
within the range of values established by Terpstra. However,
that range was based on only a small and rather dispersed
number of outbreaks, which is one of the reasons why
historical data alone were thought to be insufficient as model
input data.
Virus introduction risk simulation, a Monte Carlo
simulation model
The results given in Table II describe only the central
tendency (by means of MLEs) of the input parameters. But, as
described above, information on the variation in these values
was also obtained. To incorporate this information into the
proposed simulation model, Monte Carlo modelling was
used. This type of modelling uses randomly drawn numbers
from specified PDFs (probability distributions) and therefore
acknowledges the fact that there is variation in the system to
be modelled (9). This variation might be due not only to
uncertainty of the input parameters but also to the nature of
the system itself (i.e., in reality outbreaks may vary in
duration, number of outbreaks may differ between years).
When such a Monte Carlo simulation model is run
repeatedly, the distribution of output values will realistically
reflect the possible behaviour of the system under study.
A complete VIRiS-run simulates the events of a one-year
period. The model starts with sampling for new outbreaks in
the groups defined and 'follows' the disease (taking into
account HRP, importance and volume of risk factors, etc.), up
to a possible introduction of virus into the Netherlands.
Distributions based on quantitative information on
epidemiology, animal density and trade flows (statistics of the
National Product Boards) determine the location of the
outbreaks which could occur in the Netherlands (in four
regions: north, east, south, west). The number, location and
cause (group and risk factor) of outbreaks are stored for each
run and, after a number of runs, these present the user with a
distribution of possible outcomes with regard to primary
outbreaks. Thereafter, the model of Saatkamp (14) was used
to simulate the number of secondary outbreaks.
Using information originating from databases, research
(literature) and experts, a base scenario was constructed.
Since some of the information was only available as relative
numbers (such as the relative importance of risk factors), the
number of expected outbreaks (Table II) was used to calibrate
the model, i.e., translate the relative numbers into absolute
values while keeping the relative 'distances' intact. Therefore,
the base scenario for CSF is calibrated on approximately one
outbreak every two years. Next, changing (some) input
parameters, and thus simulating alternative situations,
provides insight into the influence of these parameters on the
number of outbreaks in the Netherlands. Such an alteration,
demonstrated by the elimination of the risk factor 'swill' from
the calculation, is evaluated below.
More insight into the significance of the results provided by
VIRiS might be obtained by calculating economic
repercussions. Meuwissen et al. (12) calculated the economic
effects of CSF outbreaks if stamped out in accordance with EU
disease eradication regulations, and concluded that the total
loss from such an outbreak in the Netherlands ranged from
US$0.7 million to U S $ 1 3 0 million, depending on the region
affected (US$0.7 million in the northern region, US$130
million in the southern region of the Netherlands). As could
be expected, there is high correlation between total losses and
the animal and farm density of the regions involved. The
values calculated include losses to all links in the production
chain (slaughter of infected herds, production standstill on
infected farms, movement restriction inside protection and
surveillance zones, market support through government
compensation, and organisational costs). The calculation was
based on the (optimistic) scenario that the outbreak did not
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16 (11
result in trade bans. The implementation of such trade bans
may result in far more serious losses (3).
Results of the virus introduction
risk simulation
Figures 1 and 2 show some results calculated by VIRiS for the
basic scenario where the expected number of CSF outbreaks
in the Netherlands equals 2 . 5 per five-year period. In this
scenario, the southern region of the Netherlands (41%) is the
area most likely to be affected by a primary CSF outbreak;
fewer outbreaks ( 1 2 % ) are expected in the north (where the
density of pigs and farms is lowest). Figure 1 illustrates the
relative importance of risk factors responsible for these
potential outbreaks. By far the most significant risk factor is
the import oflivestock, accounting for 5 5 % of the outbreaks.
Other important risk factors are the feeding of swill and
insufficient cleaning of (returning) trucks which were used to
export pigs from the Netherlands to other European
countries. Figure 2 shows that a CSF outbreak in the
Netherlands would be most likely to originate from outbreaks
in Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain (Southern Europe). This
is mainly due to the large number of pigs imported from these
countries, in particular from Spain. Neighbouring countries
(Germany, Belgium and Luxembourg) would also be an
important source for CSF introduction into the Netherlands,
because of the extent of trade contacts (import as well as
export) between the Netherlands and these countries.
Country group
Fig. 2
Sources of primary classical swine fever outbreaks in the
Netherlands: country groups
calculated the variation in losses between outbreaks (due to
variation in the number of farms involved). A small simulation
study using the @RISK software package, which was based
on data regarding distribution of losses ( 1 2 ) and the VIRiS
results relating to the regional distribution of outbreaks,
resulted in cumulative probability distribution of annual
losses due to CSF outbreaks in the Netherlands (Figure 3 ) .
This Figure shows that annual losses do not exceed several
million US dollars in approximately 2 5 % of the cases. In these
cases, outbreaks only occur in the north. When outbreaks
occur in other regions, losses are much higher (indicated by
the twist in the graph) but there is a 9 5 % chance that they will
not exceed U S $ 1 0 0 million.
Figure 3 also shows the distribution of losses in a 'no swill'
scenario. The risk factor 'feeding of imported swill' is expected
to account for approximately 2 0 % of the CSF outbreaks in the
Netherlands, despite the fact that swill feeding is officially
forbidden (swill was thought to be the source of the 1 9 9 2
outbreak of CSF). A complete elimination of this factor
therefore decreases the number of outbreaks by 2 0 % , to an
Fig. 1
Sources of primary classical swine fever outbreaks in the
Netherlands: risk factors
As mentioned previously, Meuwissen et al. (12) calculated the
losses due to CSF outbreaks in each of the four regions.
Combining their findings with the likelihood of each region
being affected by an outbreak, results in an expected average
loss of approximately U S $ 7 6 million per outbreak or U S $ 3 8
million per year. However, Meuwissen et al. ( 1 2 ) also
Fig. 3
Cumulative distribution of annual losses due to classical swine fever
outbreaks in the Netherlands, base scenario and 'no swill scenario'
average of two outbreaks per five-year period. However, as
swill is more likely to cause an outbreak in the west than in
the other regions of the Netherlands - the busiest harbours
and the main airport for the country are located in the west,
thus the highest concentration of imported swill is to be found
here - the decrease in annual losses does not equal exactiy
2 0 % . Figure 3 shows the resulting cumulative distribution of
annual losses for this scenario. The 5 0 % percentile in the
swill-free scenario is at U S $ 2 7 million, which is US$6 million
less than in the basic scenario.
Concluding remarks
Important steps involved in risk management are the
identification and assessment of risks and the development,
analysis and evaluation of alternative strategies ( 1 , 6, 1 0 ) .
With the development of VIRiS, a serious and successful
attempt has been made to combine these steps into one
The quality of the results of a model heavily depends on the
quality of the input: 'rubbish in = rubbish out'. A major part of
the input of VIRiS is based on the subjective opinion of
experts. The quality of this input is difficult to judge as there is
no standard available for comparison. However, as long as
research does not provide better values, these expert estimates
represent the best information available. Nevertheless, while
using the VIRiS model, continuous effort must be made to
enhance the quality of the input data. The model is
constructed in such a way that changes in these values can be
made easily.
Designed as a tool to assist policy-makers, the major task for
VIRiS is to illustrate the consequences of alternative strategies
and the (potential) impact of uncertain (or unknown) input
values. One example of analysis of an alternative strategy was
presented in this paper. Eliminating the risk factor 'feeding of
imported swill' resulted in a decrease of annual losses of US$6
million or 1 5 % in the 5 0 % percentile (median). Such
information might be helpful in the process of deciding what
measures need to be taken and how much money should be
set aside to minimise the risk of virus introduction in a
cost-efficient way.
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16 (1)
Classical swine fever outbreak
in the Netherlands
Since 4 February 1997, the Netherlands has been confronted
with an outbreak of CSF. Unfortunately, the outbreak
occurred in the southern region of the country, where the
animal and farm densities are highest. Simulation results
showed that in this area, losses incurred by the disease may
exceed U S $ 4 0 0 million, excluding losses due to market
disruptions. By April 1 9 9 7 , more than 1 2 0 farms were
diagnosed as being infected with CSF, and this number may
continue to increase. Preliminary results of tracing studies
indicate that the causal virus is of the same type (Chinese) as
the virus which caused outbreaks in Paderborn, Germany, at
the end of 1996. The HRP 1 is an estimated 4.5 weeks, which
is more than one week longer than the MLE reported in the
simulation study (but within the variation expected to occur
around the reported value). Moreover, the enforcement of
movement restrictions proved to b e a problem in the early
days, after identification of the first infected premises.
Therefore, the Netherlands might be facing a 'worst case
Apart from the financial consequences of market disruption
(the trade ban on live animals), which are not yet known, the
highest losses will be caused by government purchase and
destruction of pigs from farms located within the protection
zones where movement of pigs is prohibited. This measure
has been taken to avoid welfare problems, further spread of
the virus, and disruption of the internal market due to an
oversupply of animals (the bulk of production is normally
exported). The Dutch Ministry of Agriculture estimates the
costs of this measure at approximately U S $ 2 4 0 million for the
entire outbreak. However, total losses cannot be calculated
until the outbreak is eradicated completely and all restriction
measures have been lifted, which is not to be expected before
September 1 9 9 7 .
The authors wish to thank Nell Ahl and Paul Sutmoller for
their valuable comments on the first draft of this paper.
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz., 16(1]
Risques et conséquences économiques d'une introduction de la
peste porcine classique aux Pays-Bas par l'alimentation des porcs
avec des eaux grasses
H.S. Horst, R.B.M. Huirne & A.A. Dijkhuizen
Il est de la plus haute importance, pour un pays exportateur de viande comme les
Pays-Bas, de se doter d'un programme efficace de prévention et d'éradication
des maladies animales. Si un foyer grave venait à se déclarer, les mesures
d'éradication requises par l'Union européenne et une interdiction éventuelle des
exportations de viande auraient des conséquences économiques très graves.
Toutefois, les informations historiques et expérimentales sur lesquelles fonder de
tels programmes sont plutôt rares. De plus, jusqu'à une époque récente, il
n'existait pas d'approche intégrée combinant les différents aspects liés à un foyer
et à ses risques avec ses conséquences économiques.
Les auteurs décrivent un projet qui s'appuie sur une approche de ce type. Le
projet a fait appel aux connaissances des experts mais a eu également recours à
une modélisation par ordinateur du risque d'introduction de virus (modèle VIRiS).
Ce modèle intègre des informations objectives et subjectives sur les risques et les
conséquences de l'introduction de virus, et constitue un outil efficace permettant
aux autorités responsables d'évaluer les programmes de prévention existants et
les alternatives possibles. Le modèle VIRiS est ici appliqué à la peste porcine
classique. Une comparaison est établie entre la situation actuelle et une situation
hypothétique où le facteur de risque lié aux eaux grasses dans l'alimentation des
porcs serait complètement éliminé.
Analyse des risques - Eaux grasses - Économie - Modélisation par ordinateur - Pays-Bas
- Peste porcine classique - Porcins.
Riesgos y consecuencias económicas de la introducción de la
peste porcina clásica en los Países Bajos a través de la
alimentación de cerdos con desechos líquidos
H.S. Horst, R.B.M. Huirne & A.A. Dijkhuizen
Para los países exportadores de productos cárnicos como los Países Bajos,
disponer de un programa eficaz de prevención y erradicación de las
enfermedades animales reviste la mayor importancia. En caso de brote de
enfermedad de cierta gravedad, las medidas de erradicación exigidas por la
Unión Europea y la posible prohibición de exportar productos cárnicos no
dejarían de entrañar severas consecuencias económicas. Sin embargo, es
escasa la información histórica y experimental sobre la que puede basarse un
programa de prevención y erradicación. Por añadidura, hasta hace poco tiempo se
carecía de un enfoque integrado que combinara los diversos aspectos relativos a
los brotes infecciosos y a sus riesgos con sus consecuencias económicas.
Los autores describen un proyecto basado en un enfoque integrado de este tipo.
Dicho proyecto fue llevado a cabo gracias a la consulta de expertos y al
Rev. sci tech. Off. int. Epiz, 16(1)
desarrollo de un modelo de simulación del riesgo de introducción de un virus
(modelo VIRiS). VIRiS integra informaciones de índole tanto objetiva como
subjetiva acerca de los riesgos y consecuencias de la introducción de un virus, y
constituye por ello una herramienta muy útil gracias a la cual las autoridades
públicas pueden evaluar los programas de prevención existentes y las posibles
alternativas. El funcionamiento de VIRiS viene ilustrado mediante el ejemplo de la
peste porcina clásica. A tal efecto se lleva a cabo una comparación entre la
situación actual y una hipotética coyuntura en la que se hubiera eliminado por
completo el factor de riesgo «alimentación con desechos líquidos».
Palabras clave
Análisis de riesgos - Cerdo - Desechos líquidos - Economía - Modelos de simulación Países Bajos - Peste porcina clásica.
1. Ahl A.S., Aeree J.A., Gipsern P.S., McDowell R.M., Miller L. &
McElvaine M.D. (1993). - Standardization of nomenclature
for animal health risk analysis. In Risk analysis, animal health
and trade (R.S. Morley, ed.). Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 12
2. Becker Y. (1987). - Epidemiology of African swine fever
virus. In African swine fever (Y. Becker, ed.). Martinus Nijhoff
Publishers, Boston, 145-150.
3. Buijtels J.A.A.M. (1997). - Computer simulation to support
policy-making in Aujeszky's disease control. PhD thesis.
Wageningen Agricultural University (in press).
4. Cattin P. & Wittink D.R. (1982). - Commercial use of
conjoint analysis: a survey. J. Mark., 4 6 , 44-53.
5. Davies G. (1994). - An overview of recent epidemics of
animal disease. In Proc. Workshop on 'Animal health and
related problems in densely populated livestock areas in the
Community'. European Community, Brussels, 35-40.
6. Hardaker J.B., Huirne R.B.M. & Anderson J.R. (1997). Coping with risk in agriculture. CAB International,
Wallingford, United Kingdom, 288 pp.
7. Horst H.S., Dijkhuizen A.A. & Huirne R.B.M. (1996). Outline for an integrated modelling approach concerning
risks and economic consequences of contagious animal
diseases. Neth.J. agric. Sci., 44, 89-102.
8. Horst H.S., Huirne R.B.M. & Dijkhuizen A.A. (1996). Eliciting the relative importance of risk factors concerning
contagious animal diseases using conjoint analysis: a
preliminary survey report. Prev. vet. Med., 27, 183-195.
9. Kleijnen J.P.C. & Van Groenendaal W. (1992). - Simulation:
a statistical perspective. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester,
England, 241 pp.
10. MacDiarmid S.C. (1993). - Risk analysis and the importation
of animals and animal products. In Risk analysis, animal
health and trade (R.S. Morley, ed.). Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz.,
12 (4), 1093- 1107.
11. Mann J.A. & Sellers R.F. (1989). - Foot-and-mouth disease
virus. In Virus infections of porcines (M.B. Pensaert, ed.).
Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 251-258.
12. Meuwissen M.P.M., Horst H.S., Dijkhuizen A.A. &
Huime R.B.M. (1997). - Risks and consequences of
outbreaks of notifiable diseases in the Netherlands (in Dutch).
Wageningen Agricultural University, 164 pp.
13. Productschap Voor Vlees En Eiren (PVE) (Products Boards
for Livestock, Meat and Eggs) (1995). - Livestock, meat and
eggs in the Netherlands (in Dutch). PVE, Rijswijk, 49 pp.
14. Saatkamp H.W. (1996). - Simulation studies on the potential
role of national identification and recording systems in the
control of classical swine fever. Mansholt Studies 2, Backhuys
Publishers, Leiden, 120 pp.
15. Terpstra C. (1987). - Epizootiology of swine fever. Vet. Q., 9,
16. Terpstra C. (1996). - Analysis of high risk period. Internal
publication (in Dutch). Wageningen Agricultural University,
3 pp.
17. Van Lenthe J. (1993). - Eli; the use of proper scoring rules for
eliciting subjective probability distributions. DSWO Press,
Leiden University, The Netherlands, 140 pp.