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Anonymous Joe
a little maths
Un peu de maths :
Soit la formule :
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB
Où
·
F = Forme présent ou prétérit
·
M= Modal
·
ED= forme participe passé
·
ING = forme ING
Sachant que
●
●
●
F et VB sont obligatoires
les éléments entre parentheses () sont facultatifs
l’ordre d’apparition est toujours le même,
vous pouvez lire la suite
Sachant que :
●
F = Forme présent ou prétérit
Vous savez désormais que dans un verb group anglais il faut toujours obligatoirement une forme présent ou
prétérit.
→cette F n’existe pas , elle est virtuelle, et a besoin d’un support et apparaît sur le premier élément de la
formule que l’on désire, dont on a besoin ;
Si le locuteur n’a besoin d’aucun des éléments facultatifs ( ) , c’est le deuxième élément obligatoire VB , le
verbe qui porte F
I walk : suj + Verbe qui porte Fprésent : le verb group se réduit ici aux éléments obligatoires et nécessaires
I walked : suj+ Verbe qui porte Fprétérit : idem
POURSUIVONS ; ne partez pas : VOUS tenez le coup ?????
Si pour des raisons que vous comprendrez au fil du temps, le locuteur veut accrocher F à autre chose que VB,
il va l’accrocher
·
à M (comme Modal) ex : I can walk/ I could walk
·
ou à HAVE : I have / I had; he has/ they had
·
ou à BE : I am/ I was; you are/ they were
Reprenons la formule pour comprendre (HAVE ED) et (BE ING)
Pour faire passer certaines subtilités que nous appellerons pour faire vite les temps, l’anglais fait suivre
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Anonymous Joe
HAVE du participe passé d’un verbe : (HAVE ED) : Have walked/ has seen / had done
Et
BE de la forme ING d’un verbe : (BE ING) : Are doing/ am singing / were looking
Amusons-nous à vérifier que ces 6 verb groups sont bien formés SELON LA FORMULE :
ü Have walked/ has seen = corrects = pourquoi???
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB : HAVE/HAS portent la forme présent de F et sont suivis de Participe passé de
VB = les 2 éléments obligatoires et un facultatif HAVE ED
ü had done =correct= pourquoi????
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB : Had porte la forme preterit de F et est suivi de Participe passé de VB = les 2
éléments obligatoires et un facultatif HAVE ED
ü Are doing/ am singing = corrects = pourquoi???
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB : ARE/ AM portent la forme présent de F et sont suivis de ING de VB = les 2
éléments obligatoires et un facultatif BE ING
ü were looking=correct= pourquoi????
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB : WERE porte la forme preterit de F et est suivi de ING de VB = les 2 éléments
obligatoires et un facultatif BE ING
La grande question que vous vous posez est sûrement :
2 éléments facultatifs peuvent-ils
apparaître dans un
même verb group ??????
La réponse est oui ; à vrai dire pour vous affoler tout de suite, les 3 éléments facultatifs peuvent apparaître
tous ensemble dans un même groupe verbal.
La seule chose qu’il faut bien retenir c’est
l’ordre immuable d’apparition
F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB
Ainsi
2 éléments facultatifs : F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB
must have looked / should have tried/ can have met etc…
2 éléments facultatifs : F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB
May be looking/ could be crying/ must be wondering etc…
3 éléments facultatifs : F (M) (HAVE ED) (BE ING) VB
Must have been wondering/ should have been listening/could have been writing
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Anonymous Joe
Let’s take a break!!!!!!!!
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3 / 17
Anonymous Joe
highlight the auxiliaries
Read the passages below and highlight the auxiliary verbs in them. Don't forget the invisible auxiliary
Ø
Paragraph 1
‘Would you go to the shop to buy me some sweets?’ my brother asked.‘I would go, but I must do my homework first,’ I
replied.
‘You can go to the shop just now and finish your homework later,’ he argued.
‘If I go now then I might forget to finish it, so I will go after I have done it,’ I
insisted.
‘All right, then,’ he replied. ‘Could you bring me some orange juice as well?’
‘I might, but only if you can afford some for me too.’
Paragraph 2
Boris Nemtsov, a prominent figure in the Russian opposition, was arrested in Moscow after a demonstration and given a 15-day jail sentence. A
day earlier he had criticised the 14-year prison term handed to Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a former oil tycoon who had been convicted of stealing oil.
Paragraph 3
The United States revoked the visa of Venezuela’s ambassador to Washington in retaliation for the rejection by Hugo Chávez of Larry Palmer, the
nominated American ambassador to Caracas, who had criticised his government.
Paragraph 4
Faced with massive protests by many of his own supporters, Evo Morales, Bolivia’s socialist president, cancelled an increase in fuel prices of
more than 70%. The government had earlier said that the price rise was needed to end an unsustainable subsidy and to encourage oil
production, which has been falling
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Anonymous Joe
Highlight the auxiliary verbs : answer key
paragraph 1
‘Would you go to the shop to buy me some sweets?’ my brother
‘I would go, but I must do my homework first,’ I
Øasked .
Ø replied.
‘You can go to the shop just now and finish your homework later,’ he
Ø argued.
‘If I
Ø go now then I might forget to finish it, so I will go after I have done it,’ I
insisted.
Ø
‘All right, then,’ he
Ø replied. ‘Could you bring me some orange juice as well?’
‘I might, but only if you can afford some for me too.’
Paragraph 2
Boris Nemtsov, a prominent figure in the Russian opposition, was arrested in Moscow after a demonstration and given a 15-day jail sentence. A
day earlier he had criticised the 14-year prison term handed to Mikhail Khodorkovsky, a former oil tycoon who had been convicted of stealing oil.
Paragraph 3
The United States Ørevoked the visa of Venezuela’s ambassador to Washington in retaliation for the rejection by Hugo Chávez of Larry Palmer,
the nominated American ambassador to Caracas, who had criticised his government.
Paragraph 4
Faced with massive protests by many of his own supporters, Evo Morales, Bolivia’s socialist president,Ø cancelled an increase in fuel
prices of more than 70%. The government had earlier said that the price rise was needed to end an unsustainable subsidy
and to encourage oil production, which has been falling.
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Anonymous Joe
Auxiliary verbs and tenses
www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/auxiliary-verbs/exercises
.
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Anonymous Joe
Killer 15 and how to form tenses PART 2
I really like this one! Killer 15
www2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/minefdpa.htm
What's this tense???
grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/quizzes/tenses/tenses_frame.html
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7 / 17
Anonymous Joe
see, saw, seen
SEE : the base form
SAW : the past tense form
SEEN : the past participle
irregular verbs: a list
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/pastverb.htm
Race against the clock! be quick!
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/regirreg.html
Review your verbs :
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/pastirab.htm
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/pastiref.htm
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/pastirps.htm
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/preperfq.html
History questions , a regular or irregular verb?
www2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/dqfbpas1.htm
IEP
SEE, SAW, SEEN
( copyright : Thank you ESL Blues )
USE the base form of the verb
• to form the present tense of most verbs
• when you use the auxiliary verbs 'do,' 'does,' 'did' to
form questions and negatives in the past and present
tenses:
1. She has a cat but she doesn't have a dog
2. -- Did you have fun?
-- Yes, I had a lot of fun.
3. -- No, I didn't have fun.
www2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/agpyesno.htm
USE the past tense form to form the preterite of
verbs
• in affirmative statements:
1. She saw the movie and she liked it.
• in questions when the question word (who, what,
how much/many, which) is the subject:
1. Who saw the accident? What happened exactly?
How many people went to hospital?
• in all cases (affirmative, negative, interrogative)
with the verb BE
1. -- Were you and Bob at the party?
-- I was there, but bob wasn't.
USE the past participle to form
• the present perfect tense
1. I have seen, done, taken,
2. He has spoken, read, written
• and the past perfect tense
1. I had seen, done, taken
2. She had spoken, read, written
• and passives
1. It was seen, done, taken,
2. They are built, he has been taken ...
www2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/agpneg.htm
answers appear in a dark box at the top of te page :
Hurricane! preterite: affirmative and negative: mostly irregular
verbs
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/hurricpf.htm
Past tense questions: mostly irregular verbs
ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/partypqf.htm
http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/questions/form2.htm
8 / 17
Anonymous Joe
When to use those tenses?
You might find the link below useful : a visual presentation of the use of English tenses
esl.about.com/od/grammarstructures/ig/Tenses-Chart/
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9 / 17
Anonymous Joe
when to use them
an interesting timeline
esl.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201a.htm
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10 / 17
Anonymous Joe
Tense recognition
PAST PERFECT = PLUPERFECT
PAST Perfect / PLU Perfect HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE
Positive
Negative
Questions
Subject + had + past participle
Subject + had + not (hadn't) +
past participle
(Question word) + had + subject
+ past participle
I, You, He, She, We, They had
finished before I arrived.
I, You, He, She, We, They hadn't
eaten before he finished the job.
What -> had he, she, you, we,
they thought before I asked the
question?
Common time expressions used with the past perfect:
already, just, before, when
Listed below are 5 uses of this tense with examples
1.
Something that had happened before something else took place
I had eaten lunch before they arrived.
Susan had already finished the project when he asked for help.
2.
Something that had happened over a period of time in the past before another point in the past
I had lived abroad for twenty years / since 2006 when I received the transfer.
Jane had studied in England before she did her master's at Harvard.
3.
Something that had happened as a precondition to something else
I had prepared for the exams and was ready to do well.
Tom had lost twenty pounds and could begin anew.
4.
In the third conditional to express imagined conditions
If I had known that, I would have acted differently.
She would have come to the party if she had been invited. (Pluperfect in the passive)
5.
With wish to express a desire about the past
I wish you had told me. = IF only you had told me (Si seulement…..
She wishes she had known about his problems.= if only she had known…. (Si seulement….
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Anonymous Joe
Exercises on the past perfect
PAST PERFECT : When I met him, I realised I had never seen a real geek before.
http://ww2.college-em.qc.ca/prof/epritchard/whatanif.htm killer 15 past perfect
http://english-quiz.net/past-perfect-tense-quiz.html intermediate : recognise it
http://www.learnamericanenglishonline.com/Yellow%20Level/Yellow_Level_Quiz_10_past_perfect.html : make it
and get familiar with its uses.
http://web2.uvcs.uvic.ca/elc/studyzone/410/grammar/pastpf2.htm intermediate, form it and decide when to
use it;
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/140.html advanced
http://www.usingenglish.com/quizzes/118.html I wish (ADVANCED)
Now that you can form and recognize the PAST perfect you can make CONDITIONAL SENTENCES type 3
If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.: Si j'avais trouvé son adresse, je lui aurais envoyé une
invitation.
www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises intermediate and advanced
www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/conditional-sentences/type-3/exercises worth everybody's while
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Anonymous Joe
preterite or present perfect????
madeld.chez-alice.fr/exercises/gaps/preterit_perfect_01.htm
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Anonymous Joe
mixed tenses
www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests/hadrians-wall : preterite, past perfect, present (active or passive) : especially for mme
Vidal's 1B10 group but everyone's welcome of course
www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/tests/london-dungeon : same level: mostly present simple but some other tenses as well:
preterite, present perfect.
ro.zrsss.si/~viljenka/mixed_tense.htm : This time : preterite (simple and progressive), present perfect, present simple and
progressive and Future tense with will : just use your instinct and for present perfect use your grammar!
www.sussex.ac.uk/langc/support/exercises/adv/grammar/mixedtenses.htm : it's getting harder...
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Anonymous Joe
CAN You spot the Passive Voice 1?
Can you find the passive voice ? : IT IS SO EASY :
to make a passive voice you need : The Auxiliary BE and the past participle of the verb
(regular verbs : refused; irregular verbs : eat, ate, EATEN)
example : The music was played by a famous pianist.
BEWARE! BE may come after another auxiliary
example : The same music has been played 24 times already!
For more on the passive voice : go to www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/passive
Highlight the auxiliary be ONLY when it is part of a passive voice.
Bolivia
Faced with massive protests by many of his own supporters, Evo Morales, Bolivia’s socialist president, cancelled an increase in fuel prices
of more than 70%. The government had earlier said that the price rise was needed to end an unsustainable subsidy and to
encourage oil production, which has been falling.
Fuel prices in Bolivia have been frozen since before Mr Morales came to power in 2006, even as the world price of oil has
surged.
Supermarket shelves were ransacked, prices shot up amid rumour of shortages and savers
queued outside banks to withdraw their deposits.
The Canterville Ghost by Oscar WIlde
When the American, Mr Otis, bought Canterville Castle, everyone told him that this was very foolish, as the place was
haunted. But Mr Otis answered, “I come from a modern country, where we have everything that money can buy. And if there
were such a thing as a ghost in Europe, we would have it at home in one of our museums.”
A few weeks later, on a lovely July evening, Mr Otis, his wife and their children, Washington, Virginia and the twins, went
down to their new home. When they entered the avenue of Canterville Castle, the sky suddenly became dark and a spooky
stillness was in the air.
Mrs Umney, the housekeeper, led them into the library of the castle, where they sat down and began to look around.
Suddenly, Mrs Otis saw a red stain on the floor just by the fireplace and said to Mrs Umney, “I am afraid something has been
spilt there.”
“Yes, madam,” said the old housekeeper in a low voice, “blood has been spilt on that spot.”
“How terrible,” said Mrs Otis; “I don't want any blood-stains in my sitting-room. It must be removed at once.”
The old woman smiled and answered, “It is the blood of Lady Eleanore de Canterville, who was murdered on that spot by her
husband, Sir Simon de Canterville, in 1575. Sir Simon disappeared seven years later. His body has never been found, but his
ghost still haunts the Castle. The blood-stain is a tourist attraction now and it cannot be removed.”
“That is all nonsense,” said Washington, the eldest son of the Otis family, “stain remover will clean it up in no time,” and he
took a bottle of stain remover out of his pocket and cleaned the spot. But as soon as the blood-stain had disappeared, a
terrible flash of lightning lit up the room and a fearful peal of thunder made the whole building shake.
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Anonymous Joe
CAN You spot the Passive Voice 2? Answer key
Highlight the auxiliary be ONLY when it is part of a passive voice.
Bolivia
Faced with massive protests by many of his own supporters, Evo Morales, Bolivia’s socialist president, cancelled an increase in fuel prices
of more than 70%. The government had earlier said that the price rise was needed to end an unsustainable subsidy and to
encourage oil production, which has been falling.
Fuel prices in Bolivia have been frozen since before Mr Morales came to power in 2006, even as the world price of oil has
surged.
Supermarket shelves were ransacked, prices shot up amid rumour of shortages and savers
queued outside banks to withdraw their deposits.
The Canterville Ghost by Oscar WIlde
When the American, Mr Otis, bought Canterville Castle, everyone told him that this was very foolish, as the place was
haunted. But Mr Otis answered, “I come from a modern country, where we have everything that money can buy. And if there
were such a thing as a ghost in Europe, we would have it at home in one of our museums.”
A few weeks later, on a lovely July evening, Mr Otis, his wife and their children, Washington, Virginia and the twins, went
down to their new home. When they entered the avenue of Canterville Castle, the sky suddenly became dark and a spooky
stillness was in the air.
Mrs Umney, the housekeeper, led them into the library of the castle, where they sat down and began to look around.
Suddenly, Mrs Otis saw a red stain on the floor just by the fireplace and said to Mrs Umney, “I am afraid something has been
spilt there.”
“Yes, madam,” said the old housekeeper in a low voice, “blood has been spilt on that spot.”
“How terrible,” said Mrs Otis; “I don't want any blood-stains in my sitting-room. It must be removed at once.”
The old woman smiled and answered, “It is the blood of Lady Eleanore de Canterville, who was murdered on that spot by her
husband, Sir Simon de Canterville, in 1575. Sir Simon disappeared seven years later. His body has never been found, but his
ghost still haunts the Castle. The blood-stain is a tourist attraction now and it cannot be removed.”
“That is all nonsense,” said Washington, the eldest son of the Otis family, “stain remover will clean it up in no time,” and he
took a bottle of stain remover out of his pocket and cleaned the spot. But as soon as the blood-stain had disappeared, a
terrible flash of lightning lit up the room and a fearful peal of thunder made the whole building shake.
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Anonymous Joe
passive voice exercises ADVANCED
www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-voice_quiz.htm
PASSIVE VOICE EXERCISES.
www.nonstopenglish.com/exercise.asp
Fairly difficult exercises :
www.e-anglais.com/exercices/passive.php
www.nonstopenglish.com/exercise.asp
www.nonstopenglish.com/exercise.asp
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