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Chapter 1

Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
C Brockman and C J M Beeren, Leatherhead Food Research, Leatherhead, UK
ª 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Amid a variety of health scares in the late 1970s and early
1980s, the consumer very quickly became convinced that
additives were dangerous chemicals to be avoided at all
costs. The additives debate was both emotional and controversial, with experts openly disagreeing, leaving
consumers feeling angry and suspicious.
By the mid-1990s, things appeared to have calmed
down somewhat, and although many consumers were
still concerned, interest in organic and natural foods had
begun to rise and other health issues started coming to the
fore, particularly food scares such as bovine spongiform
encephalopathy (BSE) in beef and salmonella in chickens
and eggs. Consumers also started becoming more aware of
some of the potential benefits of additives, including
improved appearance of food and increased storage time
and less risk of food mold/microbial growth. However,
there are still high levels of concern over the potentially
harmful effects of additives in children. This article
describes the consumer perception of and attitude to
food additives and looks at trends and developments in
the dairy market.
Key Trends in the International Dairy
Virtually all innovative new product development in the
international dairy industry can be classified under at
least one of four key themes, each of which continues to
play a significant role in influencing the ways in which
modern consumers eat.
These four broad trends are (1) health and wellness;
(2) premiumization and indulgence; (3) convenience and
snacking; and (4) lifestyle and ethics.
In health and wellness, the focus had until recently
been shifting to the addition of ingredients rather than
removal (i.e., fat and calorie reduction in dairy products
increasingly being replaced by functionality as the prime
route to a health and wellness positioning). However,
there has been a slight shift away from this trend in
some segments over the last year or so, with emphasis
now more on naturally made products with as few
additives as possible.
Functional ingredients, though, have become the
mainstay of some segments of the dairy sector such as
yogurts and milk, as these are considered very good
carriers of such ingredients and there is an ongoing
trend toward increasing the focus on specific health
benefits. Although many functional ingredients have a
generally positive image among consumers, the increasing trend – certainly for new-generation functional
products – is to pay more attention to the ultimate effect
of all the ingredients on health rather than to a specific
ingredient. As a result, combining of several functional
ingredients is an increasingly common practice, as manufacturers target a specific health issue or promote their
products as general wellness foods.
Functional ingredients and other healthy ingredients
that have a strong ‘natural’ image are generally performing the best. For example, in the functional arena, this
means good growth potential for the likes of probiotics,
which can boost the levels of ‘friendly’ bacteria already
found in the body, and omega-3 fatty acids, which have a
‘natural’ image, thanks to their close association with fish
and other natural marine sources. The naturalness issue is
also prompting increased interest in superfood ingredients, particularly the many antioxidant-rich superfruits.
Superfood ingredients generally have a dual benefit in
that they give a more ‘premium’ image to end products as
well as a healthier profile.
Although functional dairy products can command
higher prices, offer better margins to suppliers, are a
good way to establish strong brand awareness, and receive
high levels of customer loyalty, their development does
also require higher levels of investment to create and
establish new concepts. As a result, the market is generally
being driven by world’s larger branded dairy companies,
which can afford this initial outlay. With a current focus
on more economy variants in the recession and with the
health claims procedure in the European Union adding
further pressure, it is possible that future investment in
R&D might be cut back, adversely affecting the level and
diversity of new-product activity.
With regard to the premiumization and indulgence
trend, more unusual and upmarket ingredients and flavors
are adding value to products in the dairy beverages,
yogurts and desserts, cheese, and ice cream sectors in
particular. Meanwhile, there has also been a shift toward
targeting more products at adults. In yogurts and desserts,
the development of superpremium products is attracting
an older consumer base, while the ice cream market is
constantly moving upmarket. Regionality and sourcing
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
of ingredients from specific countries are other routes to
adding value, and such strategies have successfully been
adopted in the milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream
categories to date.
The convenience and snacking trend is driven by an
emphasis on portability and portioning (single-serve formats). Flavored milks in lidded on-the-go cups represent
a prime example of portability, as do spoon-free yogurts
and desserts and hand-held ice creams. Cheese snacks and
single-serve dessert formats are other sectors that make
full use of portioning. The development of 100-calorie
portions in the United States is another trend impacting
the market in both the convenience and the healthand-wellness categories. These single-serve formats
allow consumers to monitor their calorie intake at the
same time as providing convenient, single-serve formats
for snacking.
In the lifestyle and ethics category, the organic revolution has been central to new product development (NPD)
(despite the recent downturn in the fortunes of the organic
sector owing to economic recession). The success of
organics is also very much linked with premiumization
issues, as consumers often consider organic foods to be of
better quality than standard lines and, in response to this,
many of the organic developments (particularly in the
yogurt and desserts, and ice cream sectors) now primarily
use premium ingredients as well as organic milk.
Fairtrade, most closely linked with sectors such as coffee
and chocolate, is also beginning to make its mark in a
much wider range of markets, and the dairy sector has
not escaped its attention. To date, most of the Fairtrade
developments have been found in the ice cream market,
where coffee, vanilla, and chocolate flavors are most prominent, but there is scope for further development in
other dairy markets in the future. The Fairtrade movement also tends to be closely linked to the organic industry
and, as a result, many of the Fairtrade ice cream products
appearing also contain organic ingredients.
New-Product Launches as an Indicator
of Trends
Reviewing recent product launches in the UK market,
one can see that health, convenience, and premiumization
remain the key trends. Health is the driving force behind
the yogurt category, which is increasingly being spearheaded by functional brands. Numerous products have
been relaunched on a health platform in the last two
years, often highlighting calcium content (especially children’s products), as well as promoting the versatility of
yogurt. However, although probiotic ingredients are now
par for the course, functional ingredients as a whole are
still an area of confusion for consumers and not all
guarantee success (as evidenced by Müller removing
omega-3 from its Vitality brand).
The luxury end of the yogurt market also continues to
witness high levels of innovation. Danone has attempted
to bridge the gap between functionality and luxury with
its Activia Intensely Creamy launch in 2008. Also at the
premium end, the Swiss dairy company Emmi launched
muesli yogurts in the market in 2007. This launch also
reflected another growing trend: positioning of yogurt as a
specific breakfast product.
Highlighting the origin or type of fruit/flavor has been a
marked feature of the market in recent years, for example,
Madagascan Vanilla, Senga Strawberry, and Champagne
Rhubarb. This development meets the growing consumer
demand for more authentic flavors and tastes and for
provenance in food. Several Lassi products have also been
launched in the market on this type of platform.
In the cheese sector, provenance has been a key trend
with growing demand for cheese produced from local
milk and with local ingredients. The health drive also
has impacted this area, though, with numerous lower-fat
cheese variants appearing. Dairy Crest and Lactalis have
introduced lighter Cheddar versions, within their
Cathedral City and Seriously ranges, respectively. The
UK reduced-fat Cheddar market was worth £56 million in
2008, according to TNS, and growing strongly, up by
36%. The key challenge that producers are trying to
address is how to improve the taste of lower-fat cheeses.
Children’s cheeses have also been a focus area, particularly healthier variants. Kerry Foods launched a light
version of its Cheestrings brand in 2007 and then
relaunched the full range in 2008 with a greater emphasis
on the nutritional aspects of the product. Kraft Foods
relaunched Dairylea Lunchables in 2007 with less fat
and reduced salt levels as well as its Philadelphia Light
snack brand. Dairylea Bites also no longer contains artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives.
Continental cheese has also been a growing area of
interest with British consumers becoming more adventurous with both their cooking and their eating habits.
Retailers have been reporting strong sales of Feta,
Emmental, Parmesan, Mozzarella, and goat’s cheese,
and new products are appearing in these sectors.
Cheese with added fruit (e.g., Wenslydale with
cranberries, Stilton with apricots) continues to emerge,
while several smoked cheeses have appeared on the
market. A general trend toward more premium and
mature varieties, such as the vintage Cheddar, and strong
flavors has also been witnessed indicating that taste has
become a key area of focus with a more adventurous
consumer base emerging in this area.
Convenience also continues to remain a key issue
influencing development of the UK cheese market, with
mini portions and lunchtime snack products being a focus,
along with presliced, resealable, and grated formats to
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
save preparation time. Fondue has also made a return to
the market as more consumers turn to comfort food and
entertaining at home instead of eating out.
Consumer Perception
Food has its principal nutritional function in all cultures.
In addition, food is a source of basic pleasure, of aesthetic
experiences, and of medicine–poison dimension.
We perceive food-and-drink products using our five
human senses – sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing –
and it is thus important to consider how the senses influence our perception.
1. With our sense of sight we measure the appearance of
food-and-drink products. The appearance is in most
instances the first information we obtain on a product,
and we thus make our first judgements. The main
elements of the appearance of food or drinks are likely
made up by the following:
Product packaging
Product color
Product size and shape
Clarity of beverages
Composition of foods
Surface texture of products
2. Smell is the sense of volatile stimuli perceived by our
nasal cavity. We perceive smell through our nose
(orthonasal) and via our mouth (retronasal), when consuming food-and-drink products.
3. Taste is the sense of dissolved involatile stimuli perceived with our taste buds on our tongue, palate, and in
our throat. We recognize five different basic tastes:
sweet, salt, sour, bitter, and umami.
4. With our sense of touch, we mainly feel the product
texture. Touch comprises two components: the tactile
surface response from skin (somaesthetic sensations) and
kinesthesis, a deep response from muscles and tendons.
5. Hearing may be an important sense for some food-anddrink products. Sound is often linked with the freshness of products, for example, the sounds a soda drink
makes when opening the bottle, the snap of breaking
chocolate, or the crunch of fruits and vegetables.
Our senses interact with each other. The appearance of a
product will, for example, have an influence on how we
perceive the product’s flavor, with increase in color giving
an increased flavor perception.
Consumer Perception of Food Additives
Besides the taste, the most important aspect about foods
for the American people is what it contains. The
American people appear to think that natural foods are
better. A similar conclusion on the inclination to believe
that foods are better when they are natural was arrived at
in an online research study by Leatherhead Food
Research in 1996, where two-thirds of the respondents
perceived the pack claim ‘natural’ as important in determining their food or drink product choice. In line with
this, additives identified as ‘artificial’ evoke strident criticism. This emotional focus on artificial additives gives the
perception that man-made chemicals are more dangerous
to health than chemicals naturally present in our foods –
an erroneous perception.
In a study on what people think about contributors to a
healthy life, reduction in additives came in at the ninth
place, with reduction in smoking, increasing the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, and regular
exercise covering the top three (Figure 1).
In the same study carried out in the United Kingdom,
consumers accepted that, overall, additives in foods and
drinks had both advantages and disadvantages. Nearly
two-thirds agreed that additives extended the shelf life
of foods and drinks, and almost as many agreed that some
additives were essential for the shelf life of processed
foods. However, despite additives being accepted as
necessary in food and drink to some extent, the automatic
assumption was that additives were ‘bad’, and not that
they might be there to make the food safer, and about
three-quarters of the respondents agreed that additives
should be universally reduced in food products.
Less than a quarter of the respondents recognized that
an E number is an indication of European safety approval
of the food product; E numbers were generally seen as the
‘baddie’. When told in the discussion groups that E numbers were intended to be informative and reassuring in
that all foods containing E numbers had been tested to the
highest safety standards, there was sincere astonishment
among the consumers.
Although consumers’ response was generally unfavorable toward additives, their knowledge of additives was
limited. Less than two-thirds of the respondents recognized at least half of the 19 additives shown. This is an
important consideration for manufacturers especially
with regard to food product labeling, for not only will
the consumers not understand the relevance of its inclusion, but they will not even recognize the word.
Most of the ingredients with the word ‘artificial’,
synthetic, or some sort of technical/scientific reference
in their description were automatically assumed to be an
additive. Conversely, those with the word ‘natural’ or
functional in them were far less likely to be classed as
Although salt is technically not an additive, consumers
were most concerned about salt. This concern was
undoubtedly fueled by the Food Standards Agency
advertisements. Most concerns about additives were
regarding artificial flavors, synthetic colors, monosodium
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
Figure 1 Importance placed on contributors to a healthy life ranked in the order of importance (determined by mean score). From
Leatherhead Food Research (2006) Additives and Attitudes, a UK Consumer Perspective. Leatherhead ed. Leatherhead Food
glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners; respondents
were least concerned with natural flavors, functional
foods, and vitamins and minerals (Figure 2).
In a study by Rozin and colleagues covering food
attitudes of Japanese, French, Belgian, and American
people, it appeared that women showed a greater concern about the food–health link and were relatively
more interested in nutrition than were men. In general,
it was found that among the four studied groups,
Americans associated food most with health and least
with pleasure, and the French people were most food
pleasure oriented and least food health oriented.
Overall, 25% of the respondents claimed to check
product labels for additive information either all or most
of the time when they were shopping. However, just over
1 in 10 admitted to never checking the labels for additive
information. Of the respondents who did check labels,
39% to some extent confessed to finding the additive
information on food product labels difficult or very difficult to understand (Figure 3).
Looking at product sectors (Table 1), respondents
perceived the soft drinks category to have the highest
levels of food additives. Processed cheese was perceived by the consumers as the dairy product with
the highest level of additives. Figure 4 shows the
perceived additive levels for each of the dairy products
questioned about.
Sensory Panel and Consumer Evaluation
of Dairy Products
Sensorial responses to food products can be measured
using trained sensory panels or untrained consumers.
Consumers will give their hedonic response toward
food products; for example, they are able to tell which
products are liked, which one is preferred in a sample
set, and whether specific sensory characteristics are
acceptable. Consumers are unlikely to give feedback on
specific sensory characteristics, such as the sourness
intensity, firmness or unripe aftertaste. For this detailed
feedback on product characteristics trained assessors
should be utilized. Trained assessors are usually
screened in basic tastes recognition, odor evaluation,
ability to discriminate stimuli, and ability to verbalize
and quantify sensory characteristics. In addition, they
are trained in specific test methods and products.
Specifically for the evaluation of dairy products,
some consideration should be given to the serving
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
Figure 2 Consumer concern for specific additives. From Leatherhead Food Research (2006) Additives and Attitudes, a UK Consumer
Perspective. Leatherhead ed. Leatherhead Food Research.
Table 1 Food and drink categories ranked by perceived
additive levels
Figure 3 Understanding of additive information on food
product labels. From Leatherhead Food Research (2006)
Additives and Attitudes, a UK Consumer Perspective.
Leatherhead ed. Leatherhead Food Research.
temperature and the sourness of the products, as these
may influence and, if not correctly presented, bias the
Important attributes of dairy products include color
and texture on appearance; aroma and flavor characteristics such as dairy, creamy, and sour milk; sweet and
sour taste; and the texture and mouthfeel attributes
such as smoothness, thickness, creaminess, and viscosity. Also the aftertaste and afterfeel should be taken
into account, as dairy products may often give some
aftereffects too.
% of respondents
Soft drinks
Crisps/savory snacks
Ready meals
Diet soft drinks
Processed cheese
Processed meat
Ice cream complements
Milk shakes
Ice cream
Cereal bars
Fruit juice
Breakfast cereals
Do not know
From Leatherhead Food Research (2006) Additives and Attitudes, a UK
Consumer Perspective. Leatherhead ed. Leatherhead Food Research.
When specific attributes are being evaluated, it is
imperative that the attributes be well understood by the
assessors. Some examples of dairy attributes and their
definitions are given in Table 2.
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
Figure 4 Dairy products by perceived additive levels. From
Leatherhead Food Research (2006) Additives and Attitudes, a
UK Consumer Perspective. Leatherhead ed. Leatherhead Food
as a key part of their diet. These markets are characterized
by particularly high levels of cheese and butter
For UK and Spanish consumers, on the other hand,
most of their dairy intake is in the form of liquid milk. US
consumers take less dairy products in their diet in general
than do European consumers, while the dairy markets of
Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East/Africa,
although fast growing, are significantly less developed.
The dairy product range on offer in France is particularly extensive, and French consumers take great
pride in their own expertise in dairy production.
France produces over 1000 cheese types, and almost all
French households purchase cheese. With an average
per caput consumption of 23.7 kg yr 1, France is the
world’s second largest cheese consumer (only behind
Greece). French consumers have a strong knowledge of
dairy products and of ‘terroirs’ (regional specialties) and
traditional products in particular.
A survey for the Dairy Council in the United
Kingdom in April 2008 found that 77% of consumers
agreed or strongly agreed with the statement ‘Dairy
products are healthy’ (this figure rose to 88% just for
yogurt and 93% just for milk, but declined to 49% for
cheese and 31% for butter). Of the consumers, 88%
agreed or strongly agreed with the statement ‘Dairy
products are good for children’. This survey also found
that dairy products were the most common source of
food allergies, although only 55% of the people claiming
to have a food allergy were actually medically diagnosed
as having one.
With 12 million Germans reportedly being lactoseintolerant (according to the website of OMIRA
Oberland–Milchverwertung Ravensburg GmbH), the
high levels of dairy consumption in Germany reflect the
importance of the category to the rest of the population
(Table 3).
Table 2 Examples of dairy attributes and their definitions
Visual thickness
Perceived thickness of sample
upon dropping off spoon
Flavor of cream, milk, Greek yogurt
Thickness of yogurt in mouth
Creamy mouth-coating effect
Creamy mouthfeel
Consumption of Dairy Products
Table 3 Per caput consumption levels of dairy products,
2007 (kg per capita)
The Netherlands
The United Kingdom
The United States
EU figures from CNIEL, L’Economie Laitière en Chiffres 2009, US
figures converted from University of Wisconsin (Brian Gould,
Agricultural and Applied Economics, UW Madison).
The major European dairy markets of Germany, France,
Italy, and the Netherlands offer their consumers a
wide array of dairy products and ranges, and dairy
products are viewed very favorably by most consumers
Liquid milk
Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
Consumer Demand for Clean Labels
Removal of artificial colors, flavors, and preservatives has
been a key feature within many food categories in recent
years, as consumers have become more aware of the
presence of these substances and have taken a greater
interest in nutrition and the link between diet and health.
Consumers are becoming more sophisticated and knowledgeable, whilst food markets are becoming increasingly
global – trends in the West are swiftly reflected elsewhere, as a result of which it is no longer possible for
manufacturers to treat regional markets differently.
Historically, removing things from foods has reduced
their taste and mouthfeel quality. It is therefore the task
of the additives industry to develop effective ways to
counter act this.
Recent emphasis has been on moving to foods with
inherent goodness. Hence ‘natural’ was the top claim on
all new food and drink products launched globally in 2008
(accounting for 23% of all new product launches, according to Mintel’s Global New Products Database). Words
such as ‘naturally rich in’ (e.g., antioxidants), ‘wholesome’,
and ‘nutritious’ are describers that consumers increasingly
understand and wish to see.
The superfood trend has led to significant interest in
fruits, nuts, seeds, and cereals that offer added health
benefits owing to their antioxidant, mineral, or fiber content. Throughout the food industry, fruits rich in
antioxidants, including pomegranate, blueberry, cranberry, and açai, are becoming particularly popular and,
although their use is perhaps most pronounced in the soft
drinks industry, the yogurt sector has not been immune to
the superfruit phenomenon.
In general, superfruit flavors are most commonly used
in yogurt ranges that already offer some kind of natural
(e.g., organic) or healthy (e.g., heart healthy) positioning.
Innovation in the yogurt market has involved products
containing fruits such as cranberry, acerola, pomegranate,
açai, and blueberry.
In terms of the leading health-positioning categories
for new dairy products, between January and July 2009,
Innova Market Insights recorded the following as the top
positioning claims globally: (1) digestive/gut health (14%
of all launches); (2) low fat (14%); (3) allergen-free (9%);
(4) vitamin/mineral fortified (8%); and (5) no additive/
preservative (7%).
An example of a dairy product tapping into the natural,
clean label trend is Häagen–Dazs with its ice cream brand
Five launched in early 2009, which contains just five
ingredients: skim milk, cream, sugar, egg yolks, and a
flavor (e.g., mint extract for the ‘mint’ version).
Natural and Greek-style yogurts are experiencing
something of a resurgence in several countries at present,
prompted perhaps by an increasing demand for more
natural foodstuffs and by an interest in new ways of eating
yogurt, for example, with honey for breakfast or in
cooking. The UK yogurt market has seen particular
strength in recent times and own-label suppliers have
recently got into the act with the launch of their own
breakfast yogurts combining natural yogurt with honey or
granola, and even their own organic natural and Greekstyle yogurts. It was reported by Danone in 2009 that
natural and Greek-style yogurts represented 11% of the
healthier yogurt and yogurt drinks market (which itself
was 42% of the total yogurt and pot desserts market) in
the United Kingdom and were experiencing strong
However, there are significant regional differences in
the performance of natural and Greek yogurts. In many
Continental European countries, for example, natural
yogurt has a fairly mature image and is attracting little
significant NPD. In general, Greek-style yogurts appear
to have a more widespread appeal and are performing
fairly well throughout the world. Greek-style yogurts
generally contain more fat than do standard yogurts but,
despite this, consumer interest is increasing, thanks to
their positive image of quality. In addition, leading suppliers have offered reduced-fat versions to appeal to the
health-conscious consumer, while organic versions are
becoming more widespread.
The Future
The maturing dairy markets of Western Europe and
North America will not be the prime drivers of future
growth in the industry; that will come from developing
dairy markets such as those of Eastern Europe, China, and
Cheese sales in Western Europe for example are forecast to decline by 0.1% per annum in volume terms
between 2008-12, versus growth of 4.2% per annum in
Eastern Europe, and 8.3% growth per annum in Asia.
Health looks set to remain the most dominant of the
megatrends. Healthy options in dairy have significantly
outperformed the rest of the dairy sector in recent years.
For example, healthy dairy options grew 36.2% in value
in Germany between 2003 and 2008 versus only 7.3%
growth for dairy sales as a whole.
Further Reading
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Wolf MB (1996) Sensory Testing Methods. West Conshohocken,
Calvo C, Salvador A, and Fiszman SM (2001) Influence of colour
intensity on the perception of colour and sweetness in various fruitflavoured yoghurts. European Food Research and Technology
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Additives in Dairy Foods | Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products
Drake MA (2009) Modern sensory practices. In: Clark S, Costello M,
Drake MA, and Bodyfelt F (eds.) The Sensory Evaluation of Dairy
Products, pp. 505–530. New York: Springer.
Innova Market Insights (2009) Dutch giant to focus on natural inherent
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Netherlands: Innova Market Insights BV.
Johnson JL, Dzendolet E, and Clydesdale FM (1983) Psychophysical
relationship between sweetness and redness in strawberry-flavoured
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Johnson JL, Dzendolet E, Damon R, Sawyer M, and Clydesdale FM (1982)
Psychophysical relationships between perceived sweetness and colour
in cherry flavoured beverages. Journal of Food Protection 45: 601–606.
Kilcast D (2004) Measuring consumer perceptions of texture: An
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pp. 4–32. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited.
Lawless HT and Heymann H (1998) Sensory Evaluation of Food:
Principles and Practices. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Leatherhead Food Research (2006) Additives and Attitudes, a UK
Consumer Perspective. Leatherhead: Leatherhead Food Research.
Leatherhead Food Research (2008) The Dairy Market – Global Trends
and Innovation. Leatherfood: Leatherfood Food Research.
Leatherhead Food Research (2009a) Global Food Markets database.
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Leatherhead Food Research (2009bb) The UK Food & Drinks Market
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Lindley M (2006) Healthy-eating challenges and the use of food
additives. Food Science and Technology 20: 16–17.
Mintel (2009a) Consumer Goods Europe, Vol. 551, p. 11.
Mintel (2009b) In: Halliday J (ed.) Natural Comes Out Top in New
Product Claims 2008.
Rozin P (1996) The socio-cultural context of eating and food choice.
In: Meiselman HL and MacFie HJH (eds.) Food Choice, Acceptance
and Consumption, pp. 83–104. London: Blackie.
Rozin P, Fischler C, Imada S, Sarubin A, and Wrzesniewski A (1999)
Attitudes to food and the role of food in life in the USA, Japan,
Flemish Belgium and France: Possible implications for the
diet–health debate. Appetite 33: 163–180.
Shepherd R and Raats M (1996) Attitudes and beliefs in food habits.
In: Meiselman HL and MacFie HJH (eds.) Food Choice Acceptance
and Consumption, pp. 346–364. London: Chapman & Hall.
Relevant Websites –
Ravensburg GmbH.