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2017-Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal

publicité
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jep
Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south
of Kerman, Iran
MARK
⁎
Mohammad Sadat-Hosseinia,b, , Mostafa Farajpourc, Naser Boroomandd,e, Farshad SolaimaniSardouf
a
Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
Department of Horticultural Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
c
Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, College of Abourihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
d
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
e
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
f
Department of Arid Land and Desert Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran
b
A R T I C L E I N F O
A BS T RAC T
Keywords:
Ethnopharmacology
Medicinal plants
Kerman
Iran
Ethnobotany
Ethnopharmacological relevance: The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning
the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran.
Materials and methods: Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the
modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was conducted
that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural
importance index (CI).
Results and discussion: In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the
south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with
the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts
(23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods.
The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista
tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb
(L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of
Kerman.
Conclusion: Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these
plants should be the focus of future research.
1. Introduction
Plants contain a variety of secondary metabolites that function as
hormones, attractants, poisons, and repellents, among others
(Mirahmadi et al., 2011). Many of the metabolites have pharmacological properties that have been and are used by humans (Hostettmann
and Terreaux, 2000). Over the centuries, humans have depended on
plants as sources of food and medicine, in addition to also meeting a
variety of other requirements (Flaster, 1996). The earliest uses of
medicinal herbs are traced back to approximately 4500 BCE (Pei,
2001). Plants were useful not only in the ancient medical systems but
also continue to play a crucial role in the present healthcare systems.
Worldwide, people use traditional medicines to meet some of their
primary healthcare needs (WHO, 2002). Currently, the use of ethnobotanical information on medicinal and aromatic plants is gaining
considerable attention in scientific communities (Heinrich, 2000). Iran
is among the top ten countries worldwide with 8000 plant species and
1727 endemic species and therefore, is one of the most important
centers globally for plant diversity (Yousofi, 2007). Traditional pharmacopoeia and medicinal plants have been studied in different areas of
Iran, e.g., Turkaman Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005), West Azerbaijan (Miraldi
et al., 2001), Baluchestan (Sadeghi et al., 2014), Sirjan (Nasab and
Khosravi, 2014), Kohghiluyehva Boyer Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al.,
2012), Kazeroon in Fars Province (Dolatkhahi et al., 2010) and
Hormozgan (Safa et al., 2012; Saber-Amoli et al. (2004) introduced
recorded 285 medicinal plants species in Kerman Province. With
⁎
Corresponding author at: Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Jiroft, Jiroft, Iran.
E-mail addresses: [email protected] (M. Sadat-Hosseini), [email protected] (M. Farajpour), [email protected] (N. Boroomand),
[email protected] (F. Solaimani-Sardou).
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.006
Received 2 June 2016; Received in revised form 20 January 2017; Accepted 2 February 2017
Available online 04 February 2017
0378-8741/ © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
most important archaeological, historical sites in Iran and is located in
Jiroft. Additionally, Halilroud is the most significant and only permanent river in the area, which drains into Lake Jazmurian.
3,665,000 ha of natural resources, the south of Kerman Province has a
wide variety of medicinal plants. However, very little is known about
how local people use these plants as medicines to cure diseases. The
primary cities of southeast Kerman Province with such plants are
Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad, Qale-Ganj, Rudbar and Manujan.
According to the 2006 Iranian census, the population of the region is
629,497 people. The populace includes 210,064 (33.37%) urban and
419,433 (66.62%) rural residents who habitually use or collect
medicinal plants. Many parts of Iran, particularly the southeast, which
is the center of agriculture in Iran with rangeland vegetation, have been
affected by reduced rainfall due to climatic changes (Beheshti-Rad,
2015; Gonchei et al., 2010), and water shortage is one of the primary
factors leading to the extinction of plants. Therefore, projects must be
designed and studies conducted to save plant species, particularly
useful medicinal plants. The objectives of this study were to collect and
document information regarding the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and the treatments provided by traditional healers living
in the southeast of Kerman Province.
2.2. Data collection and plant identification
Data were collected from six districts of southeast Kerman from
2013 to 2015 from both villages and urban areas. With the aim of a
quantitative approach to record the ethno-medicinal information, the
participant observation method was used in combination with openended interviews and questionnaires (a questionnaire is provided in an
online Supplementary file). Additionally, other knowledgeable people
of the region, including medicinal herb vendors, shepherds, farmers
and herbalists, were among the interviewees. The people in local areas
speak Persian, and therefore, the interviews were in Persian. A total of
64 informants (38 females and 26 males) between 30 and 89 years of
age were interviewed. Information on vernacular names, medicinal
uses, herbal part(s) as pharmacological agent and preparation and
treatment methods was recorded, and the details are presented in
Table 1. Medicinal plants were collected and labeled and preserved at
the Herbarium Horticultural Department of the University of Jiroft for
future studies.
2. Materials and methods
2.1. Study area
2.3. Data analyses
The study area was located in the southeast of Kerman Province
with a longitudinal range from 55°20′12.43′′ to 63°52′38.28′′, a
latitudinal range from 27°31′23.35′′ to 29°14′35.42′′ and elevation
ranging from 143 m (Holes Jazmurian, nestled between the provinces
of Kerman and Sistan-Baluchestan) to 3884 m (JabalBarez and Bahr
Aseman mountains) above sea level. The South of Kerman Province has
six cities that include Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad, Qhale-Ganj, Rudbar
and Manujan (Fig. 1). Approximately 90% of the total area of natural
resources in the province is forests, 483,000 ha (14%), pastures,
1,941,954 ha (56%), and desert, 1,038,000 ha (30%). Only 5% of the
total area of the province is agricultural land; however, most of the
agricultural lands are in the south of the province. Pastures and forests
are associated with Jiroft, Kahnoj, Anbar-Abad and part of Manujan,
but Qhale-Ganj, Rudbar and other parts of Manujan are desert. These
regions are characterized by cold, dry weather at high altitudes in
mountainous areas and by warmth and humidity in the low-lying areas.
The average rainfall, annual temperature and range of humidity in
these regions are approximately 140 mm, 25.7 °C and 34–66%,
respectively. Several nomadic tribes with a rich historical background
and that use medicinal plants and have their own traditional healers
are in these regions: the Āsiābars, the Jebāl Bārezis, the Solaymāni
Balučes, and the Mehnis. These tribes seasonally migrate within the
Jiroft subprovince (the Central Burean of Irān, 1999). In this study, we
used information from the nomadic tribes. Konar Sandal is one of the
The ethnobotanical information was analyzed using reports on
plants use. This index was defined as a combination of three variables,
i, u and s, such that informant i mentioned the use of species s in the
use category u. The number of plants and the number of informants
that reported use of this species were counted. Quantitative value
indices were calculated in this study.
2.3.1. Use-value (UV)
The UV, a quantitative index used to determine the relative
importance of an indigenous plant species, was calculated with the
following formula:
UV = Σ Ui / n
where UV represents the use value of a species; Ui is the number of
consumptions mentioned by each informant for a given species; n is the
total number of informants interviewed that used a given species
(Phillips and Gentry, 1993).
2.3.2. Informants consensus factor (ICF)
Informant consensus factor (ICF) was employed to indicate homogeneity of the information. All citations were placed into ailment
categories that each plant was claimed to affect. The ICF was calculated
Fig. 1. Location map of Iran showing Kerman province (the study area).
195
196
Pistacia khinjuk Stocks
Pistacia atlantica Desf.
Ammi majus L.
Anethum graveolens L.
Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B.
Fedtsch.
Conium maculatum L.
Coriandrum sativum L.
Dorema aucheri Boiss.
Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss.
Ferula szowitsiana DC.
Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Levisticum persicum Freyn &
Bornm.
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss
Pimpinella saxifraga L.
Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir
Rhazya stricta Decne.
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.
Pergularia tomentosa L.
Achillea eriophora DC.
Achillea wilhelmsii K.Koch
Artemisia aucheri Boiss.
Centaurea bruguieriana (DC.)
Hand. Mazz.
Centaurea solstitialis L.
Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.)
Pers.
Anacardiaceae
Anacardiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Apocynaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Asteraceae
Cichorium pumilum Jacq.
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
Lactuca serriola L.
Onopordon leptolepis DC.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.
Bip.
Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze
Blepharis persica (Burm.f.) Kuntez
Narcissus tazetta L.
Acanthaceae
Amaryllidaceae
Apiaceae
Apiaceae
Scientific name
Family
Kalkich
Kasni
Kangar saharaei
Kahou khardar
Kangar
Shirtighak
Shirtighak
Babouneh
Golgandom zard
Babooneh
Golgandom
Jaz
Benjerask
Labashir
Boumadaran
Kharak
Jafari
Jafari Kouhi
Izbok
Gish
Garchi
Badiuon
Karasm
Oshtork
Anghouze shirin
Anghouzeh
Showkaran
Geshniz
Ziresiah
Golsefid
mitkham
Baneh
Kasour
Khar sonbol
Narges
Vernacular name
(Persian)
Table 1
Indigenous medicinal knowledge of plants from the study area.
Leaf
Whole plant
Root
Leaf
Aerial parts
Leaf
Leaf
Aerial parts
Aerial parts
Aerial parts
Leaf
Flower
Leaf
Flower
Leaf
Leaf
Seed
Aerial parts
Leaf
Leaf
Aerial parts
Fruit
Latex
Leaf, rootLatex
Whole plant
Leaf
Fruit
Latex
Aerial parts
Aerial parts
(latex)
Aerial parts
Fruit
Aerial parts
Seed
Fruit
Leaf, seed
Fruit
Leaf and seed
Bulb
Leaf
Fruit
Plant part used
Epilepsy, anti-tumult
Eye diseases, skin rash
Lactiferous, infected blotch, asthma, stomach ulcers, blood
pressure, nerve tonic;
leaf for migraine
Antipyretic, blood purifier; root for appetizing
Gastric discomfort, appetizing
Bone and joint pains
Urinary stone, abdominal pains, diarrhea
Skin rash
Skin ailments
Parasite repellent, migraine, anti-inflammation
Stomachache, appetizing, epilepsy
Stomachache
Febrifuge
Toothache
Eye problems
Leaf for sedative after snake, scorpion and insect bite; roots
for gastric discomfort and migraine
Remove inflammation of the skin
Parasite repellent
Antiepileptic
Wound healing
Wound healing
Blood coagulation
Carminative
Epilepsy
Eye diseases, skin rash
Carminative, flavoring of animal oil
Gastric discomfort, bone and joint pains
Stem as pickle, flavoring of food
Blood coagulation
Sterility treatment, gastric discomfort
Blood coagulation
Hemorrhoids, stomachache,
toothache
Cough,
bone and joint pains
Nausea, diuretic
Leaf for anti-cancer, osteoporosis; seeds for gastric
discomfort
Digestive, diuretic, respiratory tract infection, child squirt,
parasite repellent
Pertussis, respiratory ailments
Diabetes, intestinal infections
Seasoning of food
Washing head hair
Carminative
Stomachache
Medicinal uses
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Decoction
Liniment
Decoction
Liniment
Liniment
Decoction
Liniment
Infusion
Infusion, moisturized in
water
Liniment
Powder, decoction
Decoction
Powder, decoction
Decoction, dressing
Decoction
Decoction
Powder
Liniment
Liniment
Decoction
Decoction (with meat and
vegetables)
Decoction, dressing
Decoction
Decoction, dressing
Decoction
Decoction
Infusion, chewy seed
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Decoction, liniment
Liniment
Decoction, infusion
Preparation
SK120
SK121
SK122
SK123
SK124
SK125
SK126
SK118
SK119
SK117
SK116
SK115
SK127
SK114
SK128
SK111
SK112
SK113
SK133
SK108
SK109
SK110
SK105
SK106
SK107
SK103
SK104
SK102
SK100
SK101
SK134
SK132
SK127
SK130
Voucher no.
0.17 SK129
(continued on next page)
0.13
0.25
0.25
0.33
0.14
0.33
0.27
topical
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Topical
Topical
Oral
Oral
0.22
0.12
0.12
0.10
Topical
Oral,
Topical
Oral
0.10
0.20
0.09
topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
0.44
0.10
0.10
0.25
0.17
0.40
0.08
0.12
0.08
0.08
0.07
0.22
0.14
0.19
0.20
0.25
0.16
0.23
0.20
0.14
UV
Oral,
Oral
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral,
topical
Oral,
topical
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral
Mode of application
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
197
Kalpoureh
Avishan
Aghalaleh
Teucrium polium L.
Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.
Dracocephalum polychaetum
Bornm.
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.
Lawsonia inermis L.
Malva microcarpa Pers.
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Liliaceae
Lythraceae
Malvaceae
Lamiaceae
Peymaouk
Hana
Khatmi
Zarow
Pideneh
Nana
Goldar
Morporzou
Moureshk
Dom shir
Kenton
Shahtere
Gazaneh
Melengou
Salvii
Golmour
Khimouk
Shirbeng
Alaf mourcheh
Hanzal
Talhkou
Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.
Stachys inflata Benth.
Convolvulaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Dipsacaceae
Pichak
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Cressa cretica L.
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
Scabiosa candollei DC.
Convolvulaceae
Gharanphel
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.
Nepeta cataria L.
Otostegia persica (Burm.f.) Boiss.
Salvia compressa Vent.
Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.
Convolvulus arvensis L.
Caryophyllaceae
Mokou
Dak
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Dianthus orientalis Adams
Brassicaceae
Capparidaceae
Khakshi
Ricinus communis L.
Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Lamium album L.
Lallemantia royleana (Benth.)
Benth.
Leonurus cardiaca L.
Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.
Capparis spinosa L.
Brassicaceae
Makhleseh
Euphorbiaceae
Fumariaceae
Lamiaceae
Lamiaceae
Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.)
Shuttlew.
Sisymbrium irio L.
Brassicaceae
Zarch
Golparak
Sezkouei
Chezkouei
Gavzaban
Khakshi
Ephedra strobilacea Bunge
Euphorbia helioscopia L.
Berberis integerrima Bunge
Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem.
Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don
Nonnea persica Boiss.
Trichodesma stocksii Boiss.
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex
Prantl
Berberidaceae
Bignoniaceae
Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Brassicaceae
Vernacular name
(Persian)
Ephedraceae
Euphorbiaceae
Scientific name
Family
Table 1 (continued)
Seed
Leaf
Flower
Leaf
Flower
Leaf and flower
Leaf
Leaf
Aerial parts
Seed,
Skin of root
Aerial parts
Leaf,
Flower
Aerial parts
Aerial parts
Flower
Leaf
Aerial parts
Leaf
Seed
Aerial parts
Leaf
Fruit
Aerial parts
Fruit and root
Aerial parts
Fruit
Flower
Aerial parts
Skin of root,
flower
Fruit
Flower,
Oil of plant
Aerial parts
Seed
Aerial parts
Fruit
Bark of stem
Leaf
Leaf
Flower
Fruit
Plant part used
Cardiac distress
Nerve tonic
Flavoring of food and yogurt flavor
Febrifuge, pertussis, child fever
Toothache, addiction treatment
Abdominal pains, diarrhea, gastric discomfort
Menstruation additive
Wound healing
Alzheimer's treatment
Anti-inflammation, respiratory ailments
Antimicrobial
Abdominal pains, menstruation additive, cough
Stomachache, pertussis, asthma, tonic, liver infection
Sedative
Influenza
Rheumatism,
flavoring
Diuretic
Hair tonic, prevention of hair loss, skin rash
Throat protuberance, heat regulation,
Combined with sesame and olive for white hair
Toothache, nerve tonic, hiccups
Headache
Abdominal pains, diarrhea, jaundice, gynecological
problem,
wound healing,
Antifungal, antibacterial
Adult squirt, liver cysts, hypertension antipyretic
Abdominal pains, diarrhea,
bone and joint pains,
Sedative, stomach ulcers
Abdominal pains, diarrhea, root for parasite repellent,
rheumatism
Skin rash
Abdominal pains, diarrhea, emetic
Adult squirt, stomachache
Asthma, cough, antipyretic, osteoporosis, lactiferous
Cough, constipation, adult squirt, carminative
Urinary stone, adult squirt, stomachache,
skin rash
Stomach acidification, rheumatism
Fruit and flower as pickle, parasite repellent
Blood purifier, heat regulation
Urinary problems
Cardiac distress, nerve tonic, sedative
Sedative
Nerve tonic, respiratory ailments, throat pains
Parasite repellent, gastric discomfort, abdominal problem,
febrifuge,
skin rash
Migraine, sedative, menstruation additive, spasm
Medicinal uses
Dressing
Decoction
Decoction
Liniment
Moisturized with water
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Dressing
Infusion
Dressing
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Decoction
Decoction
Infusion
Decoction, moisturized
with water
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Dressing, decoction
Liniment
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Liniment, decoction
Infusion
Liniment, infusion
Decoction, liniment
Decoction, infusion
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction, moisturized in
water, liniment
Preparation
Topical
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral,
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
topical
Topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral,
topical
Oral,
SK169
SK166
SK167
SK168
SK164
SK165
SK159
SK160
SK161
SK162
SK163
SK158
SK152
SK153
SK155
SK157
SK150
SK151
SK147
SK145
SK149
SK146
SK148
SK143
SK144
SK142
SK141
SK139
SK137
SK135
SK136
SK138
SK140
Voucher no.
0.33 SK154
0.16 SK156
0.19 SK171
(continued on next page)
0.10
0.13
0.22
0.14
0.07
0.15
0.19
0.15
0.22
0.23
0.30
0.29
0.38
0.17
0.17
0.30
0.38
0.43
0.29
0.33
0.21
0.38
0.28
0.10
0.20
0.22
0.44
topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral,
0.16
0.17
0.20
0.25
0.14
0.40
UV
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral,
Mode of application
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
198
Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill.
Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.)
G.Klotz
Crataegus azarolus L.
Crataegus pontica K.Koch
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Rhamnaceae
Rosaceae
Rhamnaceae
Amygdalus eburnea Spach
Papilionaceae
Pedalicaceae
Rosaceae
Astragalus eremophilus Boiss.
Sesamum indicum L.
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Papilionaceae
Hordeum vulgare L.
Rumex vesicarius L.
Anagallis arvensis L.
Samolus valerandi L.
Clematis ispahanica Boiss.
Thalictrum minus L.
Rhamnus persica P. Lawson
Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.
Johnst.
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.)
Wight & Arn.
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.
Amygdalus communis L.
Dalbergia sissoo DC.
Genista tinctoria L.
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Medicago sativa L.
Onobrychis altissima Grossh.
Ononis spinosa L.
Trifolium pratense L.
Papilionaceae
Poaceae
Polygonaceae
Primulaceae
Primulaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Rhamnaceae
Rhamnaceae
Alhagi pseudoalhagi (M. Bieb.)
Desv. ex B. Keller & Shap.
Cicer kermanense Bornm.
Papilionaceae
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.
Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse
Papilionaceae
Poaceae
Poaceae
Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend.
Oleaceae
Plantago ciliata Desf.
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce
Gisekia pharnaceoides L.
Myrtus communis L.
Mimosaceae
Molluginaceae
Myrtaceae
Plantaginaceae
Scientific name
Family
Table 1 (continued)
Kalkouhi
Kalkouhi
Siahchou
Mahlab
BadamKouhi, Alouk
Konar
Badamshirin
Konar
Jow
Torshak
Del pasand
Alaf
Chaspakou
Sadabi
Titoumari
Toutlangou
Garch
Garch
Kowchak
Kalilolmolk
Konjed
Gag
Ranginzard
Motki
Yonjeh
Esperes
Karkhar
Shabdar
Nokhod kermani
Kharshotorkhazari
Aadour
Zeytoun
Kahour
Bargdyereii
Mourdeneh
Vernacular name
(Persian)
parts
parts
parts
parts
parts
parts
parts
parts
parts
Leaf and fruit
Flower
Leaf and fruit
Flower
Leaf skin
Fruit
Latex
Leaf
Fruit
Leaf and fruit
Flower and leaf
Fruit
Fruit and leaf
Fruit
Leaf
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Aerial
Fruit
Fruit
Leaf
Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed
Seed
Aerial
Aerial
Root
Aerial
Aerial
Root
Aerial
Aerial parts
Root
Fruit
Aerial parts
Leaf and fruit
Fruit
Aerial parts
Leaf
Plant part used
Hypertension, sedative, spasms
Cardiac distress
Hypertension, sedative, spasms
Cardiac distress
Common cold and as antimicrobial
Stomach ulcers
Intestinal infections
Leaf for liver failure, parasite repellent, ulcer
Fruit for child squirt
Leaf for sedative; oil for cough, adult squirt, parasite
repellent
Liver cysts, nerve sedative, swollen joints, parasite repellent
Reducing palpitations
Child squirt, jaundice
tooth mass
Asthma, skin rash
Remove bur from skin
Infections topical,
digestive, diuretic
Leaf as antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-tumult; oil for
diabetes, insect repellent, remove bur from skin, parasite
repellent
Hemorrhoids;
leaf for rheumatism
Diuretic
Urinary stones
Diuretic,
hair tonic
Insect repellent
Gastric discomfort, abdominal pains, diarrhea
Stomachache, stomach ulcers, stomach acidification
Blood coagulation, infections topical
Eye problems, prostate problems
Diuretic, inflammation of the urinary tract
Blood purifier, asthma,
bone and joint pains
Asthma, adult squirt
Prevention of hair loss,
blood fat
Leaf as antibacterial and for burns
Seed as antipyretic, sedative
Diuretic
Flatulence,
prevention of hair loss
Diabetes, gout
Appetizing, remove bur from skin
Liver cysts, urinary stones
Tonic
Diuretic, joint pain, headache
Gastric discomfort
Adult squirt
Blood purifier
Medicinal uses
Decoction
Decoction
Infusion
Decoction, dressing
Decoction, oil
Liniment
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction, oil, infusion
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Infusion
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Decoction
Liniment
Syrup
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Liniment
Decoction
Decoction
Liniment
Liniment, dressing
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Decoction, liniment
Cataplasm, decoction
Cataplasm, decoction
Decoction,
Liniment
Liniment
Dressing
Decoction, infusion
Preparation
Oral
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Oral
Topical
Oral
Oral
Topical
Topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Topical,
oral
Topical
Oral
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral, topical
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral
Oral, topical
Oral,
topical
Oral
topical
Topical
Topical
Topical,
oral
Oral
Topical
0.29
0.20
0.40
0.43
0.57
0.10
0.31
0.17
0.14
0.20
0.14
0.07
0.30
0.22
0.33
0.17
0.14
0.33
0.33
0.10
0.12
0.20
0.50
0.14
0.16
0.22
0.33
0.21
0.10
0.13
0.16
0.29
0.25
0.20
0.33
UV
SK200
SK199
SK198
SK196
SK195
SK207
SK194
SK206
SK182
SK187
SK177
SK189
SK197
SK205
SK202
SK203
SK191
SK190
SK186
SK193
SK188
SK179
SK180
SK181
SK183
SK184
SK185
SK192
SK178
SK176
SK175
SK174
SK173
SK170
SK172
Voucher no.
(continued on next page)
Mode of application
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
SK211
SK212
SK213
SK214
0.11
0.33
0.13
0.12
ICF = Nur − Nt /Nur − 1
where ‘Nur’ is the number of use citations in each category and ‘Nt’ is
the number of species taken as medicine (Trotter and Logan, 1986).
The index relative frequency of citation (RFC) (Tardío and Pardo-de
Santayana, 2008) was calculated by dividing frequency of citation (FC)
(the number of informants mentioning a useful species) by total
number of informants in the survey (N). The RFC index does not
consider the variable u (use category). The RFC index ranges from 0
(when nobody referred to a plant as a useful one) to 1 (when all
informants mentioned it as useful). The RFC index was calculated with
the following formula:
Oral
Oral,
topical
Topical
Oral
RFC=FC/N
Liniment
Decoction, infusion
Decoction
Decoction, dressing
SK210
0.29
Decoction
SK209
SK201
0.15
0.17
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
SK204
SK208
0.23
0.43
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Oral,
topical
Oral
Decoction
Decoction, liniment
Preparation
UV
as follows:
Mode of application
Voucher no.
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
The cultural importance index (CI) (Tardío and Pardo-de
Santayana, 2008) was also calculated, and the following equation was
used:
uNC
CI =
iN
∑∑
u=u1 i−i1
UR ui
N
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Plant diversity
In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families
were collected from the south of the Kerman region. The following
information about these medicinal plants is included in Table 1: local
names, uses, parts used for medicinal effects and other information.
Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae, each with 14 species, were the
families with the most medicinal plants (Fig. 2). Similarly, Mosaddegh
et al. (2012) and Sadeghi et al. (2014) report that for the
Kohghiluyehva Boyer Ahmad and Saravan regions in Iran, respectively,
the families Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae contained the most
medicinal plants. Based on these two previous studies and the current
study, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae are the dominant families
for medicinal plants in the south of Kerman.
Aerial parts
Aerial parts
Blood coagulation, hemorrhoids,
Allergies, hair tonic
Prevention of hair loss
Heat regulation
Antipyretic,
headache
Epilepsy, squirt
Pertussis
Nerve tonic
Antioxidant, influenza, vermicide,
arthritis
Fever, nerve tonic
Appetizing, vermicide, carminative
Aerial parts
Fruit
Latex
Fruit
Aerial parts
Fruit
Leaf
Aerial parts
Leaf
Medicinal uses
Plant part used
The CI index accounts for the spread of the use (number of
informants) for each species, in addition to the variety of uses.
A t-test was used to compare plant uses for rural vs. urban, women
vs. men and less than 50 years old vs. more than 50 years old.
Shahbasand
Esfand
Verbena officinalis L.
Fagonia bruguieri DC.
Plant parts used by local people to treat different ailments included
leaves, aerial parts, stems, roots, bark, latex, skin, seed oils, bulbs,
flowers and fruits (Fig. 3). The most frequently used parts were leaves
(26.17%) followed by aerial parts (23.49%), fruits (18.79%), flowers
(9.39%) and seeds (13%). In addition to the whole plant, skin and bulbs
were the least consumed parts for herbal medicines. The difference in
the rate of consumption of these parts might be due to the different
concentrations of bioactive compounds. Leaves and aerial parts are
active in photosynthesis and metabolite production (Ghorbani, 2005)
and as a result, based on many reports, these parts of medicinal plants
are widely applied in different areas of Iran (Miraldi et al., 2001;
Ghorbani, 2005; Mosaddegh et al., 2012).
3.3. Preparation and application modes
The ways the medicinal plants are prepared for consumption or use
are listed in Table 1. The most common preparation methods were as
follow: decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%). Most
preparations are taken orally and some are used topically; however, a
few are used both orally and topically. For example, Blepharis persica
(Burm.f.) Kuntez and Lawsonia inermis L. are used only as a topical,
Verbenaceae
Zygophyllaceae
Kahkenj
Termengou
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.
Daphne mucronata Royle
Solanaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Zil
Lycium depressum Stocks
Solanaceae
Siahchou
Gahich
Cotoneaster persicus Pojark.
Haplophyllum tuberculatum Juss.
Rosaceae
Rutaceae
Gheytaron
Archen
Sanguisorba minor Scop.
Amygdalus orientalis Mill.
Rosaceae
Rosaceae
Vernacular name
(Persian)
Scientific name
Family
Table 1 (continued)
3.2. Plant parts used
199
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
Apiaceae
Asteraceae
Lamiaceae
Papilionaceae
Rosaceae
Brassicaceae
Rhamnaceae
Boraginaceae
Poaceae
Anacardiaceae
Asclepiadaceae
Convolvulaceae
Euphorbiaceae
Primulaceae
Ranunculaceae
Solanaceae
Acanthaceae
Amaryllidaceae
Apocynaceae
Berberidaceae
Bignoniaceae
Capparidaceae
Caryophyllaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Dipsacaceae
Ephedraceae
Fumariaceae
Liliaceae
Lythraceae
Malvaceae
Mimosaceae
Molluginaceae
Myrtaceae
Oleaceae
Pedalicaceae
Plantaginaceae
Polygonaceae
Rutaceae
Thymelaeaceae
Verbenaceae
Zygophyllaceae
No. of cited plants
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Family name
Fig. 2. Number of cited plants from respective plant family.
Root
5%
Skin
2%
Latex
5%
Whole plants
Bulb
1%
1%
Boyr Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al., 2012), Sirjan (Nasab and Khosravi,
2014) and Turkmen Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005), and is also ranked the
first use category in certain other parts of the world (Heinrich et al.,
1998; Miraldi et al., 2001; Ghorbani et al., 2005). This ranking might
be due to cultural tendencies, economic conditions and regional habits.
Skin and hair disorders were ranked the second use category for cures
from medicinal plants. This region is characterized by high sunlight
exposure, and long-term exposure to intense sunlight causes skin
burns, skin cancers and hair disorders, which can be prevented with
the use of medicinal herbs.
Leaf
26%
Seed
9%
Flower
9%
3.4. Comparison of different indices
Fruit
19%
Aerial parts
23%
The ICF values were calculated for the categorized ailments (see
Table 2). Fourteen primary ailment categories were identified: digestive system, metabolic problems, nervous system, skin and hair, coldflu and fever, respiratory system, flavor/appetizing, eye problems,
sedative, gynecological problems, cardiac system, musculoskeletal
disorders, blood/wounds and liver problems. Cold-flu and fever had
the highest ICF value (0.67) and included ailments such as pertussis,
epilepsy, febrifuge, asthma and cough. Eye problems and cardiac
system also had a high ICF value (0.62) and were followed by liver
problems (0.6), sedative (0.6), blood/wounds (0.54) and musculoskeletal disorders (0.54). An ICF value of 0.5 was registered for metabolic,
skin and hair and gynecological problems. Flavor/appetizing, respiratory system, digestive system and nervous system were ranked with the
ICF values of 0.4, 0.37, 0.32 and 0.27, respectively. These low ICF
values could be attributed to the tendency of people in local or urban
communities to use orthodox medicines for curing recognized diseases,
even in modern times (Upadhyay et al., 2011). However, high ICF
Fig. 3. Percentage of plant parts used.
%citation/species
whereas Pistacia khinjuk Stocks and P. atlantica Desf. are used in both
oral and topical applications.
Rajaei and Mohamadi (2012) studied the medicinal plants of the
Hezar Mountains in the southeast of Iran. Similar to the results of the
current study, the most common preparation method in the area they
examined is decoction (44%), which is widely adopted by folk healers
that tend to use bioactives effectively (Muhammad et al., 2015). In
Iran, many traditional people prefer this method of preparation
(Sharafzadeh and Alizadeh, 2012; Bahmani et al., 2014; Amiri et al.,
2014).
A total of 353 uses for medicinal plants were reported, which were
categorized into 14 medicinal use categories. Most plants were used to
treat diseases such as digestion problems (25.66%, 48 species), skin
and hair disorders (9.62%, 18 species), metabolic disorders (9.09%, 17
species) and cold-flu and fever (8.02%, 15 species) (Fig. 4). The
gastrointestinal system is ranked as the first use category for medicinal
plants in studies in certain local parts of Iran, such as Kohghiluyeh va
Table 2
Diseases based categories and ICF.
Species
citation
Fig. 4. Percentage of species and citation in each use category.
200
Use category
Use
citation
No. of
plant
used
Category uses
taxon ICF
Digestive system
Metabolic (Diabetes and
diuretic)
Nervous system
Skin & hair
Cold/flu/fever
Respiratory system
Flavor/ Appetizing
Eye problems
Sedative
Gynecology
Cardiac system
Musculoskeletal
disorders
Blood/ wound
Liver problems
70
33
48
17
0.32
0.5
16
35
43
9
21
9
26
7
9
25
12
18
15
6
13
4
11
4
4
12
0.27
0.5
0.67
0.37
0.40
0.62
0.60
0.50
0.62
0.54
34
16
16
7
0.54
0.60
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
Cultural importance index
Number of informants
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Name of medicinal plants
Fig. 5. The most commonly referred medicinal plants.
Name of plants
Use reports
Fig. 8. Plants with the highest cultural importance index.
The UV is an important tool for choosing the most valuable
medicinal plants in any area that may be used for future pharmacological evaluations (Sadeghi et al., 2014). In this study, the UVs ranged
from 0.07 to 0.57 (Table 1). With UVs higher than 0.42, Amygdalus
eburnea, G. tinctoria, C. procera, F. garcinii and C. mahaleb were the
most commonly used medicinal plants in the south of Kerman
Province. The highest UV was observed for A. eburnea (0.57), and
the lowest UV was recorded for Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.
(0.07), Ferula szowitsiana DC. (0.07) and Samolus valerandi L. (0.07).
The two top medicinal plants, A. eburnea and G. tinctoria, are widely
used for a variety of treatments, including as a sedative, for coughs and
adult squirt, as a parasite repellent, and for gastric discomfort and
abdominal pains and diarrhea. However, the three species with the
lowest UV are used to cure only one ailment, with S. mirzayanii used
for Alzheimer's disease, F. szowitsiana for stomachache and S.
valerandi as a tonic. Although many treatments are reported in many
studies for these three plants, these species may be the least used
because of the decreasing numbers of traditional people and insufficient transfer of knowledge about the primary uses (Amirghofran et al.,
2010; Iranshahy and Iranshahi, 2011; DominguesPassero et al., 2014;
Van Wyk, 2008). To compare cultural effects, we used t-tests.
Based on the t-tests, no significant difference was detected between
rural and urban use of medicinal plants (t=1.16, p=0.24). Many urban
people have agricultural land in rural areas, and therefore, they share
their plant knowledge with another. However, significant differences in
medicinal plant use were detected between women and men (t=2.15,
p=0.03) and different ages (below and above 50 years old; t=−2.57,
p=0.01). Additionally, based on the results, women and older people
(older than 50 years) had more knowledge of medicinal plants. In the
area studied, women are the primary preparers and gatherers of
medicinal plants.
The knowledge of medicinal plants differed somewhat among
nomadic tribes. For example, the Āsiābars tribe used Salvia macrosiphon Boiss for wound healing and the Solaymāni Balučes tribe used
Stachys inflata Benth., Ferula ovina (Boiss.) and Prosopis cineraria
for respiratory ailments, as a carminative and for skin rashes,
respectively.
Name of plants
Fig. 6. Species with the highest number of use-reports.
Relative frequency of citation
values clearly reveal a significant number of reports on the use of these
plants for a particular disorder category (Baydoun et al., 2015). Fortyeight medicinal plants were used against problems of the digestive
system followed by those used for skin and hair disorders (18),
metabolic problems (17), blood/wounds (16) and cold-flu and fever
(15). The names of the most popular medicinal plants and the species
with the most use reports are displayed in Figs. 5 and 6, respectively.
The most commonly referred to medicinal plants were Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch, and therefore,
the two species are recognized in the south part of Kerman (Fig. 5).
Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers. and C. mahaleb had the
maximum number of use-reports (23 UR), followed by Olea aucheri
A.Chev. ex Ehrend. (20 UR), Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl
and Convolvulus arvensis L. plants (17 UR) (Fig. 6). Mosaddegh et al.
(2012) report that Teucrium polium L. had the maximum number of
use-reports (10 UR) in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad Province, and in
Sirjan, Malva sylvestris L. had the highest index (Nasab and Khosravi,
2014).
Figs. 7 and 8 shows the medicinal plants with the highest RFC and
CI indices, respectively. According to the RFC index, Z. multiflora was
ranked first because it was mentioned by many informants, and the
RFC index is directly related to the number of informants that mention
use. However, for the CI index, C. mahaleb and C. parthenium were
ranked first, because CI is independent of the number of informants
and considers the diversity of uses. The rankings based on each index
are shown in Table 3, with differences in the ranking of the species for
the different indices.
3.5. Plants known in other parts of Iran
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. is frequently used for gastric discomfort
in different parts of Iran (Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, Mosaddegh
et al., 2012; Turkmen Sahra, Ghorbani, 2005; Saravan, Sadeghi et al.,
2014; West Azerbaijan, Miraldi et al., 2001 and Sirjan, Nasab and
Khosravi, 2014). In this study, the result was similar. Teucrium
polium, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., D. sophia and Capparis spinosa L.
are used as the same traditional medicines in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer
Ahmad (Mosaddegh et al., 2012), Turkmen Sahra (Ghorbani, 2005)
and Sirjan (Nasab and Khosravi, 2014).
Name of plants
Fig. 7. Medicinal Plants with the highest relative frequency of citation.
201
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Table 3
Comparison of important plants by using indices and species ranking based on each index.
Family
Scientific name
RFC
CI
RFC ranking
CI ranking
Lamiaceae
Apiaceae
Asteraceae
Brassicaceae
Cucurbitaceae
Boraginaceae
Papilionaceae
Oleaceae
Rosaceae
Convolvulaceae
Caryophyllaceae
Lamiaceae
Rosaceae
Lamiaceae
Asteraceae
Brassicaceae
Myrtaceae
Mimosaceae
Rhamnaceae
Zataria multiflora Boiss.
Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch.
Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers.
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
Trichodesma stocksii Boiss.
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend.
Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill.
C. arvensis L.
Dianthus orientalis Adams
L.album L.
Amygdalus eburnean Spach
Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth.
Achillea eriophora DC.
Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew.
Myrtus communis L.
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight & Arn.
0.4062
0.3593
0.3593
0.2812
0.2812
0.2500
0.2500
0.2031
0.2031
0.1718
0.1718
0.1400
0.1400
0.1400
0.1250
0.1250
0.1093
0.1093
0.109
0.2187
0.2187
0.3593
0.2656
0.2187
0.1562
0.1562
0.3125
0.3593
0.2656
0.2187
0.2187
0.2187
0.2031
0.1562
0.2031
0.1562
0.1562
0.1562
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
7
7
7
8
8
9
9
9
4
4
1
3
4
6
6
2
1
3
4
4
4
5
6
5
6
6
6
RFC, relative frequency of citation and CI, index of cultural importance.
Approximately 26 of these plants are reportedly used in some other
areas of Iran (Mozaffarian, 2013). Other species that have a wide
variety of traditional uses included the following: Coriandrum sativum
L., Dorema aucheri Boiss., Artemisia aucheri Boiss., Berberis integerrima Bunge, D. sophia, Sesamum indicum L., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Ricinus communis L., Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Lamium
album L., Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth., Anagallis arvensis L.,
Medicago sativa L., S. minor Scop., Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.)
Wight & Arn., Cotoneaster persicus Pojark., D. mucronata and
Verbena officinalis L.
3.6. Medicinal plants used in combination
For the treatment of some diseases, people use a combination of
several different plants, e.g., Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare,
Teucrium polium, Achillea wilhelmsii, Nepeta cataria and Bunium
persicum to treat the digestive system. For treatment of the common
cold, a mixture of plants is boiled that can include Zataria multiflora,
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam., Trichodesma stocksii Boiss. and
Sanguisorba minor Scop. Additionally, when people require a sedative,
a mixture of C. parthenium and T. stocksii is used.
3.7. Side effects of medicinal plants
4. Conclusions
The use of B. persicum for long periods and the simultaneous use of
T. polium and A. wilhelmsii cause skin disorders. Glycyrrhiza glabra
used to treat the digestive system may also cause excessive blood
pressure in some people.
Our study documented the ethnopharmacological knowledge in the
cities in the south of Kerman Province in Iran, including Jiroft,
Kahnouj, Anbarabad, Rudbar, Manujan and Qale-Ganj. The current
study recognized 115 medicinal plant species in 42 families that were
useful for the treatment of many human diseases. More than 10% of
the plants were endemic to Iran, indicating that the studied area is a
unique center of medicinal plants in the country.
Based on a literature review, many medicinal plants that grow in
the south of Kerman are used in different parts of Iran. These findings
showed that indigenous medicinal knowledge continues to be used in
the south of Kerman and throughout Iran. The people of the study area
and in many parts of the country are Persian, indicating that many
parts of Iran share a similar culture, and most aspects of culture are
shared among members (Wan et al., 2007). Thus, a common culture
might be one reason that many Iranian people use these medicinal
plants. Furthermore, based on the current study, the south of Kerman
has many potential medicinal plants that should be further screened for
phytochemicals and analyzed for protection against human afflictions.
The study area is usually faced with environmental stresses that include
drought and salinity, among others, and therefore, research projects
should be designed for this area with the priority to conserve the
medicinal plants.
3.8. Comparative review of reported species in previous studies
Zataria multiflora and B. persicum were the most popular plants
mentioned by most informants and are widely used to treat problems of
the respiratory and digestive systems by boiling in water. Daphne
mucronata Royle and M. sylvestris are the most popular plants for use
in Sirjan and Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad, respectively (Nasab and
Khosravi, 2014; Mosaddegh et al., 2012).
To identify the new medicinal plants reported in our study, a critical
comparison was performed with previous reports (Mosaddegh et al.,
2012; Ghorbani, 2005; Nasab and Khosravi, 2014; Sadeghi et al., 2014;
Miraldi et al., 2001; Sher at al, 2016; Dharmadasa et al., 2016;
Baydoun et al., 2015; Ahmad et al., 2015; Ishtiaq et al., 2015;
Altundag, and Ozturk, 2011). Although some medicinal plants are
reported in some previous studies, because ethnopharmacology was
not considered (e.g., Saber-Amoli et al., 2004), these studies were not
compared with our study. The results of the comparison are shown in
Table 4. In our study, two and twelve plants were cultivated and
endemic, respectively. Additionally, 64 of the 115 plants are reported
with medicinal use for the first time based on the comparison with the
literature review, and for 37 plants, we report at least one new
traditional use. For example, Nasab and Khosravi (2014) report that
the fruit of Anethum graveolens L. is used for menstrual cramps;
however, our results showed that leaf and seed of the plant are also
used to treat cancer, osteoporosis and gastric discomfort.
Authors’ contribution statement
Authors’ contributions are the following: MS-H, NB and FS-S
designed and conducted the research. MS-H and MF analyzed the data
and wrote the paper.
Compliance with ethical standards.
202
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 199 (2017) 194–204
M. Sadat-Hosseini et al.
Table 4
Comparative presence-absence matrix for the recorded plant species.
Scientific name
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Scientific name
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
Achillea eriophora DC.*
Achillea wilhelmsii K.Koch
Alhagi persarum Boiss. & Buhse
Alhagi pseudoalhagi (M. Bieb) Desv. ex B.
Keller & Shap
Ammi majus L
Amygdalus communis L.
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
Dalbergia sissoo DC.
Daphne mucronata Royle
Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl
Dianthus orientalis Adams
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Amygdalus eburnea Spach
Amygdalus orientalis Mill
Anagallis arvensis L.
Anethum graveolens L.
Artemisia aucheri Boiss.*
Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.
Astragalus eremophilus Boiss.
Berberis integerrima Bunge
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Blepharis persica (Burm.f.) Kuntez
Bunium persicum (Boiss.) B. Fedtsch.
Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand
Capparis spinosa L.
Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
Centaurea bruguieriana (DC.) Hand.
Mazz.
Centaurea solstitialis L.
Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill.
Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Pers.
Cicer kermanense Bornm.
Cichorium pumilum Jacq.
Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Dorema aucheri Boiss.*
Dracocephalum polychaetum
Bornm.
Ephedra strobilacea Bunge
Euphorbia helioscopia L.
Fagonia bruguieri DC.
Ferula ovina (Boiss.) Boiss.*
Ferula szowitsiana DC
Ferulago angulate (Schltdl.) Boiss
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.)
Shuttlew.
Fumaria parviflora Lam.
Genista tinctoria L.
Gisekia pharnaceoides L.
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.
Haplophyllum tuberculatum
Juss.
Hertia intermedia (Boiss.) Kuntze
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
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0
0
0
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0
0
0
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0
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0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Clematis ispahanica Boiss.
Conium maculatum L
Convolvulus arvensis L
Coriandrum sativum L.
Cotoneaster kotschyi (C.K.Schneid.)
G.Klotz*
Cotoneaster persicus Pojark.*
Crataegus azarolus L.
Crataegus pontica K.Koch
Cressa cretica L.
Olea aucheri A.Chev. ex Ehrend.
Onobrychis altissima Grossh.
Ononis spinosa L.
Onopordon leptolepis DC.
Otostegia persica (Burm.f.) Boiss.*
Pergularia tomentosa L.
Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss
Pimpinella saxifraga L.
Pistacia atlantica Desf.
Pistacia khinjuk Stocks
Plantago ciliata Desf.
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce
Psammogeton stocksii (Boiss.) Nasir
Rhamnus persica P. Lawson
Ricinus communis L.
Rumex vesicarius L.
Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C. Johnst.
Salvia compressa Vent.*
Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.*
Salvia mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.*
Samolus valerandi L.
Sanguisorba minor Scop.
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
Hordeum vulgare L.**
Lactuca serriola L.
Lallemantia royleana (Benth.) Benth.
Lamium album L.
Lawsonia inermis L.
Leonurus cardiaca L.
Levisticum persicum Freyn &
Bornm.
Lycium depressum Stocks
Malva microcarpa Pers.
Medicago sativa L.**
Mentha longifolia (L.) L.
Myrtus communis L.
Narcissus tazetta L.
Nepeta cataria L.
Nonea caspica (Willd.) G.Don
Nonnea persica Boiss.
Scabiosa candollei DC.
Sesamum indicum L.
Setaria italica (L.) P.Beauv.
Sisymbrium irio L.
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L.
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.
Stachys inflata Benth.*
Stricta decne.
Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip.
Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Seem.
Teucrium polium L.
Thalictrum minus L.
Trichodesma stocksii Boiss.
Trifolium pratense L.
Verbena officinalis L.
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.
Zataria multiflora Boiss.*
Ziziphora clinopodioides Lam.
Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.f.) Wight
& Arn..
Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Desf.
A: (Mosaddegh et al., 2012); B: (Ghorbani, 2005); C: Nasab and Khosravi (2014); D: (Sadeghi et al., 2014); E: (Miraldi et al., 2001); F: (Sher at al, 2016); G: (Dharmadasa et al., 2016);
H: (Baydoun et al., 2015); I: (Ahmad et al., 2015); J: (Ishtiaq et al., 2015). K: (Altundag, and Ozturk, 2011). ** and * are cultivated and endemic plants, respectively. Plants with bold
name not quoted in (A-K).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
Acknowledgments
We thank the University of Jiroft for financial support and Ms.
Maryam Akbarizadeh for editing the manuscript.
Appendix A. Supporting information
Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the
online version at doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.02.006.
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