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DISEASES CAUSED
BY PARASITES
Prof.Hamed Attia
1-Etiology:
A- Main Causes:
1.Internal Parasities
I-Tremadodes :( Fascioliasis and
Paramphistomiasis)
II-Nematodes
Ascaris- Lung worm- Parasitic gastritis- (:
)Parasitic enteritis
III- Cestodes: (Monieziasisis- Avitellina
2.External Parasities( Ticks- Lice - Mites)
2.External Parasities:
Ticks
Lice
Mites
B-Predisposing factors:
1-- Nutrition:
A) Poorly fed animals are more
susceptible because their
failure to throw off infestation
quickly.
Ex.:
In calves lung worm.
B) A dietary deficiency of a
specific nutrient such as:
cobalt, copper, phosphorus led
to reduction of animal’s
resistance
C) Anemia.
D) Poor growth.
3- Housing management:
Fecal contamination of feed.
Crowding.
 Insufficient bedding .
 Inadequate nutrition.
II-Pathological Damage
:of the parasite on the Host
I-Mechanical Damage:
•Destroy tissue and causing wounds
ulcers and bleeding.
• as:
• in Haemonchus contortus (Stomach)
•Paramphistomum Cervix
• Immature rumen flukes in the small
intestine .
.
2- Obstruction.
may occur in the
small airways of
lungs infected by:
Dictyocaulus spp.
2-Ascaris
.
3- Pressure:
on the liver or lungs from:
Echinococcus granulosus hydatid
cysts.
Tissue under excessive pressure is
not well nourished with blood and
may become inactive.
III-Depletion of the animal:
Parasites absorb food that the
host has already ingested for
its own use.
Moniezia expansa (tapeworms
IV-Allergic reaction:
Chemical components of parasites are foreign to the host and can
Dictyocalus cause allergic reactions
Bunostomum-
1-Fascioliasis
● Acute, subacut or chronic snail-born disease
● Affecte liver and bile ducts of herbiverous
mammals and man
● Caused by Fasciola Spp
● Characterized by sudden death in acute form
bottle-jaw
chronic
form
paller of mucosa
shedding of hair or wool
Sep. 05 AB
(G) Life Cycle:
~12
weeks
from infection
to adult fluke
~8 weeks
in snail to
release of
infective
fluke
(a) Clinical findings (1)
i- Acute fascioliasis
This is a more common occurance in
sheep and goats and less commonly
found in cattle.
1- Sudden death without any clinical signs
2- If the disease observed, there are:
- Dullness, weakness & anorexia
- Recumbancy & subnormal temperature
- Pain on palpation on the liver
- Death occurs rapidaly & may be accompanied
with passage of blood-stained discharges from
nostril & anus
Sep. 05 AB
(a) Clinical findings (2)
ii- Subacute fascioliasis
This is a more common occurance in
sheep and goats and less commonly
found in cattle.
1- Loss of weight
2- Paller of mucous membrane
3- Submandibular oedema seen only on few cases
Sep. 05 AB
(a) Clinical findings (3)
iii- Chronic fascioliasis
2
This is a more common occurance
in cattle and less commonly found
in sheep and goats
In sheep:
1- Loss of weight
2- Pallor of mucosae
3- Bottle-jaw
4- Sheeding of wool may occur
5- Some die after 2-3 m & other
survive with emaciation
3
Sep. 05 AB
III-Control:
1) Nutrition:
Good nutrition status and
freedom specific nutritional
deficiencies increase the
resistance of live stock to the
.effects of helminth parasites
2- Housing management:
Avoid over crowding.
Remove manure frequently, provide
plenty of bedding.
Feed and water should be high enough
off the floor to avoid fecal contamination
Maintain the plan of nutrition .
Avoid moving of animals from area free
from internal parasites to area heavy
infested with parasites.
4) protective treatment :
*Protective dosing with
anthelminthics prevent infestation
against clinical or subclinical
parasitic disease.
A-Indication:
1-treatment for individual animal
exhibiting clinical signs.
How can you choose anthelmintic
1 -Mode of action, spectrum of
activity,
2 -Duration of effect and its efficacy
(i.e. kill adult or larvae, suppress the
parasitic egg production, or promote
the expulsion of worm from GIT.
3-The frequency of treatment .
The ideal anthelmintic has the
following properties:
(a)A broad spectrum activity against adult
and larval helminth parasites.
(b)A rapid metabolism in the body.
(c)A low toxicity in the target species.
(d)No side-effects to the animal.
Administration
of
Anthelmintics:
1-Dosing by mouth
 The majority of anthelmintics are given by
mouth as:
 liquid preparations
 pastes
 boluses
 tablets
2-Dosing by injection
The size of needles
the site of injection
Control
3- Seasonal treatment:* Timed by seasonal transmission
factor can reduce the number of
treatment but may fail if
environmental factors changed.
8. Drugs used for treatment of
internal and external
parasites.
:
Drug & active
principle
Dovenix
Rafoxanide 7.5%
Rolenol
Indication
Fascioliasis, gastro-intestinal
.parasites and oestrus ovis
Fascioliasis, round worms
and oestrus ovis .
Immature and mature
fascioliasis and GIT
nematodes
Ranide
Liver fluke and round worms.
Fasciolid
Liver fluke
Citarine
Gastro-intestinal nematodes
and lung worm
Genesis)
Rafoxanide
Suspension
Thibendazole and
Rafoxanide mixture
Tyvert
Fasinex250
Internal and external
parasites.
Fascioliasis, wire worms and
oestrus ovis .
Fascioliasis, and all type of
nematodes .
Parasitic gastroenteritis, lung
worm and tape worm
Immature and adult Fasciola
Spp.
Banminth
Gastro-intestinal nematodes
Albendazole
Tape, round and lung worm,
and adult liver fluke
Dose, route of adminstration &
company
ml/25 kg S/C 1
(RHONE MERIEUX)
ml /25 kg S/C 1
)ADWIA(
cattle and sheep 0.5 ml / 10 kg
.Bwt. S/C & I/M
(NVESA(
ml / 25 kg Bwt. S/C 1
(MSD)
ml / 25 kg Bwt. S/C 1
)Cid(
ml / 100 kg Bwt. S/C in different 7
area in the neck
)Byer(
ml/a50 kg S/C 1
)Bio trading(
ml /100 kg orally 12.5
(ADWIA(
ml /10 kg orally 3
)ADWIA(
ml/ 5 kg per os 1
)Upjohn(
In sheep and goats 1 tablet/ 25 kg
per os
g / 10 kg Bwt. orally 1
)Pfizer(
Cattle 14/50, sheep 2/10 as
drench
)Pharma-Swead(
Drugs & active principle
Indication
Dose, route of adminstration &
company
Levamisole
Broad spect. Anthelmentics
against round worm of GIT,
.Lung of cattle, sheep and goat
5ml/15 kg oral drench
GIT Nematodes, Cestodes,
hepatica & fasciola
Paramphistomum
15ml/100 kg Bwt
paramphist. 40 ml/100 kg
GIT Nematodes, round, tape
worms and Fasciola
4 ml / 10 kg Bwt orally
for GIT nematodes & adult
fascioliasis) Pfizer(
1TABLET / 80 kg Bwt orally(Pfizer)
)Albendazole)
GIT Nematodes, round, tape
worms and Fasciola
Piperazine
citrate 50%
Ascaridia and oxyuris in cattle
and horses
40g / 100 kg Bwt. orally( Uccma)
Piperazine
DHC 52%
Ascaridia and oxyuris in cattle
and horses
10g / 100 kg Bwt. orally
Yomesan
Taenia spp. and
.paramphistomum
Cattle, sheep & dog 1 tablet / 10 kg
Bwt. orally
Hapadex
sus Valbazine
(Albendazole)
Valbazine tab
)Niclozamid(
)Pharma-Swead(
)Schering-plough(
)ADWIA(
(Byer(
Equvalan
)Ivermectin(
Internal parasites of horse
Past syring / 600 kg Bwt. on the base
of the tongue
)MSD Agvet(
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